B2 - Keeping Healthy

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  • B2 - Keeping Healthy
    • Microorganisms & Disease
      • Microorganisms
        • Very small
          • Bacteria
            • Bacteria > viruses
            • Reproduce every 20 minutes
              • Right conditions:
                • Warmth
                • Moisture
                • Nutrients
          • Viruses
            • Bacteria > viruses
          • Fungi
      • Symptoms of disease are caused by:
        • Damage to cells when microorganisms reproduce
        • Poisons made by microorganisms
      • Diseases are often caught due to:
        • Poor diet
        • Poor hygiene
        • Overcrowded housing
    • Immune System
      • Parts of body that fight infection
      • Body's natural defenders   = White Blood Cells
        • One type engulfs bacteria and digests them
      • Worn-out white blood cells, dead bacteria & broke  cells = pus
        • Shows infection is being faught
      • Body makes antibodies
        • Match antigen markers on invading antigen
          • This kills the bacteria / fungi
          • These can change often so body has to make new antibodies
            • This is why we get a lot of colds
              • Never same antigens
        • Memory cells cause antibodies to stay in blood
          • Provides quicker action next time
            • Immune
    • Vaccinations
      • Dead / inactive cells added to body
        • Makes body create antibodies
          • DON'T catch the disease
          • White blood cells digest
      • Not 100% successful
    • Antimicrobials
      • Will kill viruses, bacteria & fungi
        • Used at home
          • eg. bleach
      • Antifungal chemicals
        • Will kill fungi
      • Antibiotics
        • Will kill bacteria & fungi
        • Must only be used when needed
          • Body will become resistant to them so won't work when they're actually needed
        • Should always be finished
          • Otherwise some mircroorganisms will stay alive
            • Becoming more resistant to antibiotics
    • Drug Trials
      • Stage 1
        • Human cells grown in lab
          • Tests effectiveness & safety on various cells
      • Stage 2
        • Animal tests
          • Tests effectiveness on whole animals
      • Stage 3
        • Human trials
          • Healthy volunteers
            • Tests for safety
          • Volunteers with the disease
            • Tests for ffectiveness & safety
          • Long-term volunteers
            • Tests for no long-term side affects
          • Open-label trials
            • Both doctor & patient know who's getting drug/ who's control
          • Double-blind trials
            • Neither doctor nor patients know who's getting drug/ who's control
          • Blind trials
            • Doctor knows who's getting drug/ who's cotrol but patients don't
    • Circulation
      • Heart & blood vessels supply blood to body
      • Heart = 4 chambers
        • Upper two = receive blood
        • Lower two = pump blood around body
      • Heart attack
        • How?
          • Fat build up in coronary arteries
            • Forms blood clot
              • Stops blood carrying oxgen & food to heart
        • Preventing?
          • Reduce fatty foods
          • Excerise regularly
          • Lose weight
          • Reduce stress
          • Stop smoking
      • Taking blood pressure
        • ?/?                         /    \     high     low
          • Low no. = pressure when heart relaxes
          • High no. = pressure when heart contracts
    • Homeostasis
      • Maintaining a constant internal environment
        • eg. keep correct water/salt levels
        • eg, remove toxic wsste
        • eg. control of nutrient levels
      • Control systems
        • Receptor
          • Detects stimuli
        • Processing centre
          • Receives info, makes response
        • Effector
          • Produces automatic response
        • Natural controls
          • Sweating when hot - eternal temperature / excrising
            • Negative feedback
        • Artificial controls
          • Incubator  -- temperature increase / decrease to keep a comfortable temperature for baby
            • Negative feedback
    • Water Content
      • Input - drinks, food, repiration
      • Output - Sweating, breathing, faeces
      • Kidneys
        • Filter small molecules from blood
          • eg. water, sugar, salt & waste
        • Reabsorb things & what isn;t absorbed is stored in bladder
          • eg. sugar, water, salt
          • Concentration reabsorbed is caused by ADH (Anti-diuretic hormone) released into blood stream by purity gland
            • Less ADH released when water content is too high so less water is reabsorbed
              • The more water absorbed by kidneys, the less urine
              • Alcohol causes dehydration - less water is reabsorbed
            • More ADH released when water content is to low so more water is reabsorbed
              • The more water absorbed by kidneys, the less urine

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