B2~ Biology2

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  • Created on: 09-06-15 21:18
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  • B2~ Biology2
    • Interactions between organisms
      • Ecological niche: How a species fits in  to its ecosystem. It depends n things like where the organism lives and what they fee on.
      • Inter-specific competition: Competition between organisms of different species.
      • Intra-specific  competition: Competition between organisms within the same species.
      • If the population of prey increase so will the population f the predators but vice versa can also happen.
      • Predator-prey cycles are always out-of-phase with each other because it takes a while for one population change to respond to the other.
      • Parasitic relationship: When one organism lives off another organism (called a host) usually causing it harm. E.g. Dogs and fleas.
      • Mutualistic relationship: Where both organisms benefit off f each other. E.g Oxpecker hisses when predator is near buffalo and buffalo supplies food for the oxpecker.
    • Adaptations
      • Specialists: Organisms which are adapted to survive in a specific habitat.
      • Generalists: Organisms which are adapted to survive in a range of habitats.
      • Some organisms have biochemical adaptions to survive extreme conditions, these are called extremophile.
      • Extremophile bacteria have enzymes that work better in higher optimum temperatures. These enzymes can function properly at temperatures where normal normally they would denature.
      • Antifreeze proteins interfere with the formation and growth of ice crystals in the cells stopping the cells from being damaged by ice to help organisms live in colder conditions.
      • Anatomical adaptations: Features of an organism's anatomy which help them survive in different conditions.
    • Adaptions to cold environments
      • In cold environments large organisms lose less heat because of their smaller surface area to volume ratio.
      • Counter current heat exchange system: Blood vessels in penguin's feet flow in opposite directions. They are very close to each other so heat is transferred. Warm blood in arteries heats the cold blood going through the veins. This keeps their feet warm.
      • Behavioral adaptations: Migration to warmer climates, Hibernation in winter and Huddling to keep warm.
    • Adaptations to hot and dry environments
      • Behavioral adaptations: Going into shade or underground, Being active at night when its cooler, or bathing in water to transfer body heat to surroundings.
      • Anatomical adaptations: Larger surface area to volume ratios so organisms lose more body heat, Vasodilation or storing fat
      • Some desert plants: Have a thick waxy layer or have spines to reduce water loss, Store water in their stems and have shallow roots to absorb water quickly.
      • Some desert plants: Have specialized kidneys to produce concentrated urine, have no sweat glands, spend a lot of time underground.


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