B2 - The immune system and vaccination

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  • B2 - Keeping Healthy
    • Microorganisms
      • includes bacteria, funghi and viruses
    • The Immune System
      • It fights off invading microbes
      • The immune response always involves white blood cells
        • White blood cells
          • There are different types of white blood cells - each has a different job to do
            • Untitled
          • 1) Anything that gets into the body should be picked up by a certain type of white blood cell
            • 2) These are able to detect things that are 'foreign' to the body
              • 3) They then engulf the microbes and digest them
                • 4) These are non-specific white blood cells because they attack anything that''s not meant to be there
          • Some white blood cells attack specific microorganisms
            • These recognise specific antigens
              • Antigens are substances that trigger immune responses. Theyre usually protein molecules on the surface of a microorganism cells
          • Certain kinds of white blood cells produce antibodies
            • Antibodies are proteins that are specific to a particular antigen.
              • Different microorganism = different antigen
              • Antibodies attatch onto invading microorganisms and do one of the three things...
                • Mark the microorganism so that the other white blood cells can engulf and digest it
                • Bind to and neutralise the viruses or toxins
                • Attatch to the bacteria and directly kill them
          • Once the right white blood cell recognises the antigen, it divides to make identical copies. This makes lots of the right antibody to fight the infection
          • Untitled
          • Some white blood cells stay in the blood after the original infection has been fought off
            • memory cells
              • They can reproduce very quickly if the same antigen enters the body again
                • These produce lots of antibodies which kill off the microorganisms before you get ill
                  • known as immunity
    • Vaccination
      • When youre infected with a new microorganism, it takes your white blood cells a few days to copy enough times and produce enough antibodies to fight it. By that time, you're pretty ill
        • Immunisation involves injecting dead or inactive microorganisms. these carry the same antigens which means that your body produces the right antibodies to fight them. However, the microorganism is harmless.
          • The body produces memory cells. Therefore, if the microorganisms attack again, your body can rapidly produce antibodies to kill them off
            • This means that you will usually get rid of the microorganisms before reaching a level that makes you sick
    • Antimicrobials
      • Chemicals that stop the growth of microorganisms or kill them, without seriously damaging your own body cells
      • useful for clearing up infections that your own body is having trouble with
      • antibiotics
        • dont kill viruses eg. flu and colds
  • The Immune System
    • It fights off invading microbes
    • The immune response always involves white blood cells
      • White blood cells
        • There are different types of white blood cells - each has a different job to do
          • Untitled
        • 1) Anything that gets into the body should be picked up by a certain type of white blood cell
          • 2) These are able to detect things that are 'foreign' to the body
            • 3) They then engulf the microbes and digest them
              • 4) These are non-specific white blood cells because they attack anything that''s not meant to be there
        • Some white blood cells attack specific microorganisms
          • These recognise specific antigens
            • Antigens are substances that trigger immune responses. Theyre usually protein molecules on the surface of a microorganism cells
        • Certain kinds of white blood cells produce antibodies
          • Antibodies are proteins that are specific to a particular antigen.
            • Different microorganism = different antigen
            • Antibodies attatch onto invading microorganisms and do one of the three things...
              • Mark the microorganism so that the other white blood cells can engulf and digest it
              • Bind to and neutralise the viruses or toxins
              • Attatch to the bacteria and directly kill them
        • Once the right white blood cell recognises the antigen, it divides to make identical copies. This makes lots of the right antibody to fight the infection
        • Untitled
        • Some white blood cells stay in the blood after the original infection has been fought off
          • memory cells
            • They can reproduce very quickly if the same antigen enters the body again
              • These produce lots of antibodies which kill off the microorganisms before you get ill
                • known as immunity

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