Cell division and growth

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  • B2 Cell division
    • Chromosomes
      • Inside nucleus
      • There are 46 (23 pairs) in human nuclei
      • Carry the genes that contain instructions to make new cells
    • Cell cycle
      • Mitosis
        • chromosomes line up at centre of cell
          • Cell fibres pull them apart
          • Membranes form around chromosomes and form nucleus
        • Produces two daughter cells (identical)
        • Important for growth, repair and development
    • Differentiation
      • Animals Cells
        • Most cells become specialise in early life
        • Most specialise cells divide by mitosis
        • Adult stem cells replace dead or damaged cells
          • Only if they cant divide eg red blood cells
        • Nerve cells are not replaced by stem cells and cannot divide
      • Plant cells
        • Able to differentiate throughout life
        • Not permanent  Cells can redifferentiate
        • Can clone
          • Under right conditions, plant cells becomes unspecialised
            • when put in different conditions, they will become specialised
              • eg Xylem, Photosynthetic cells, phloem
              • This will form an identical plant
      • The process of cells becoming specialised

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