B2

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  • B2
    • Proteins and Respiration
      • All living organisms release energy from glucose by respiration
      • Protein molecules are long chains of amino acids. Hormones, antibodies and enzymes are all proteins
      • In anaerobic respiration, a small amount of energy is released from glucose without using oxygen
      • Enzymes are biological catalysts which control all metabolic reactions, including digestion. They are also used in the home and industry.
      • The rate at which enzymes work is affected by temperature and pH
      • In aerobic respiration energy is released when glucose is combined with oxygen. During exercise, when muscles are using a lot of energy, heart rate and breathing rate increase to provide muscles with extra oxygen.
    • Cells, tissues and organs
      • Plant, animals and microbial cells have many similarities and some differences
      • Different types of cells have different structures which enable them to carry out their specific functions. They are specialised.
      • The parts of cells are called organelle, each has an important part to play in the function of the cell
      • Oxygen and other dissolved substances move in to and out of cells by diffusion
      • In animals and plants, cells are grouped in to tissues. Organs are made up of different issues working together to carry out a function.
    • Cell division, inheritance and specialisation
      • Fossils provide evidence about some of the species that lived long ago
      • Cells normally divide by mitosis, which results in two genetically identical daughter cells. To produce gametes, cells divide by meiosis, which produces genetically different cells, each with half the normal number of chromosomes
      • Genetic diagrams can be used to predict the probable characteristics of the off-spring of the two parents
      • New species can arise if two populations of a species become separated. Natural selection may result in them becoming so different that they can no longer interbreed
      • Clones can be created artificially by taking cuttings and carrying out tissue culture, embryo transplants and adult cell cloning
      • Genes are passed from one generation to the next. A gene controlling a particular characteristic may have different forms, called alleles. Some diseases, such as cystic fibrosis which can be inherited.
    • Plants and the environment
      • Chlorophyll in plant cells absorbs energy from sunlight. This energy is used to convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen in a reaction called photosynthesis
      • Glucose is used to supply energy: to make cellulose for cell walls; to make storage substances like starch and fats; and to make protein to build new cells and enzymes
      • The distribution of different species of organism in the environment is effected by physical factors. These include temperature, nutrients, light, water, oxygen and carbon dioxide
      • Quantitative data about the distribution of organisms can be collected using quadrats and transects
      • Limiting factors, including light, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration, affect the rate of photosynthesis
    • Coronary Heart Disease
      • Statins
        • Drugs that reduce cholesterol that slow down the rate of fatty deposits
      • Stents
        • Small wire frames that fit into the arteries and stop them from clogging up
      • Atheroscierosis
        • The build up of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries
    • Digestive System
      • Food tests
        • Benedicts
          • Blue/orange
          • Reducing sugar
        • Biuret
          • Protein
          • Blue/Purple
        • Iodine
          • Starch
          • Orange-Black/Blue
      • Digestive Organs
        • Mouth
        • Oesophagus
        • Stomach
        • Liver
        • Small Intestine
        • Large Intestine
        • Anus
        • Rectum
      • Digestive Enzymes
        • Lipase
          • Produced in the pancreas and small intestine
          • Breaks down fats and lipids into fatty acids and glycerol
        • Carbohydrase
          • Break down carbohydrates into glucose
          • Found in the mouth, pancreas and small intestine
        • Amylase
          • Found in the mouth
          • A type of carbohydrase
        • Protease
          • Breaks down protein into amino acids
          • Found in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine
    • Circulatory System
      • Blood vessels
        • Capillaries
          • Carry blood away from the arteries, into organs and back into veins
          • One cell thick
        • Arteries
          • Have thick walls and high pressure
          • Takes oxygenated blood away from the heart around the body
        • Veins
          • Take deoxygenated blood into the heart
          • Have thinner wall, low pressure and valves in case of backflow
      • The Heart
        • Right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs
        • Left ventricle pumps blood to the body
        • Vessels in the heart
          • Pulmonary Artery
          • Pulmonary vein
          • Aorta
          • Vena Cava
          • Coronary arteries
      • The lungs
        • Alveoli where gas exchange occurs
        • Bronchi
        • Trachea
        • Bronchioles
    • Blood
      • Platelets
        • Small cells that allow blood to clot at the site of a wound
      • Plasma
        • Liquid that carries all the blood cells
      • Red blood cells
        • Transport oxygen through blood. Have haemoglobin
      • White Blood cells
        • Fight off pathogens in body
        • Phagocytes
          • Engulf pathogen by process of phagocytes
        • Lymphocytes
          • Produce antibiotics that latch onto antigens on pathogens
    • Plants
      • Tissues and organ systems
        • Meristem
        • Xylem and Phloem
        • Epidermal tissue
        • Spongy mesophyll
        • Palisade mesophyll
      • Transpiration
        • How water moves up the plant against gravity
        • Root -> stem -> leaf
        • Factors that affect the rate of transpiration
          • Temperature
          • Light intensity
          • Humidity
          • Air movement

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