B1 F STAYING IN BALANCE

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  • Created by: SABINA.
  • Created on: 31-10-15 19:14
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  • B1f - Staying In Balance
    • Homeostasis - Maintaining a constant internal enviromentt
      • Conditions in the body need to stay steady so the cells can function properly
      • Levels of CO2
        • Respiration constantly produces CO2 which you need to get rid of
      • Water Content
        • You need to keep a balance between the water you gain (Food, Drink, Respiration) and the water you lose (Pee, Sweat, Breathe Out)
      • Body Temp
        • You need to get rid of excess body heat when you are hot but retain heat when the environment is cold
          • NEGATIVE FEEDBACK!
            • Changes in the environment trigger a response that counteracts the changes. E.g. a rise in the body temperature causes a response that lowers body temperature.
              • This means that the internal environment tends to stay around a norm, the level that the cells work best in
                • BUT This only works in certain limits ~ If the environment changes too much then it might not be possible to Counteract it
    • BODY TEMP IS CONROLLED BY THE BRAIN
      • All enzymes have an optimum temp.
        • There is a THERMOREGULATORY CENTRE in the brain which act like a personal thermostat.
          • It contains receptors that are sensitive to the blood temperatures in the brain. it also receives impulses from the skin that provide info about the skin temp.
            • The brain can respond to this info and bring about changes in the body temp using the nervous & hormonal system to initiate temperature control mechanisms
              • TOO HOT:
                • Hair lies flat
                • Lots of sweat is produced, when sweat evaporates, it uses heat from your skin. This transfers heat from the skin to the environment which COOLS YOU DOWN!
                • Blood vessels close to the surface of the skin to widen. This allows more blood to flow near the surface, so it can radiate more heat into the surrounding. THIS IS CALLED VASODILATION
                • IF YOUR EXPOSED TO VERY HIGH TEMP, YOU CAN GET HYDRATED AND CAN GET HEAT STROKE. YOU COULD DIE
              • TOO COLD:
                • Hairs stand on and to trap an insulating layer of air which helps KEEP YOU WARM.
                • Very little sweat is produces
                • Blood vessels near the surface constrict (VASCONSTRICTION) so that less heat can be transferred from the blood to the surroundings
                • You shiver and the movement generates heat in the muscles
                • IF YOUR EXPOSED TO VERY LOW TEMP FOR A LONG TIME, THIS IS CALLED HYPOTHERMIA. YOU COULD DIE!
    • INSULIN CONTROLS BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS
      • Eating foods containing carbohydrates puts glucose into the blood from the gut.
        • Normal respiration in cells removes glucose from the blood
          • Hard exercise also removes glucose from the blood
            • The level of glucose in the blood must be kept STEADY The changes in blood glucose are monitored and controlled by the pancreas USING INSULIN
      • Blood glucose to HIGH - insulin is ADDED
        • Blood with too much glucose
          • Insulin released by pancreas
            • too much glucose and insulin in body
              • Insulin makes liver turn glucose into glycogen. SO glucose is removed by liver
                • Blood glucose is reduced
      • Blood glucose too LOW - insulin is NOT ADDED
        • Blood with too little glucose
          • Insulin not released
            • Liver turns glycogen into glucose, glucose is added by the liver.
              • Blood glucose increase.
        • Insulin is a type of hormone, hormones travel in the blood so it can take time for it to reach the needed area. Electrical impulses are sent along the nerves and travel much faster. THIS MEANS THAT THE BODY TAKES LONGER TO RESPOND TO A HORMONE THAN TO A NERVOUS IMPULSE
    • DIABETES
      • Condition that affects your ability to control your blood sugar level
        • TYPE 1 - The pancreas produces little or no insulin. RESULTS that the person's blood glucose level can rise to a level that can KILL!
          • THEY CAN PARTLY CONTROL THE CONDITION BY HAVING A CAREFUL CONTROLLED DIET. BUT THEY ALSO NEED TO INJECT INSULIN INTO THE BLOOD AT THE MEANTIME. THIS WILL MAKE THE LIVER REMOVE THE GLUCOSE AS SOON AS IT ENTERS THE BLOOD FROM THE GUT, WHEN THE FOOD IS BEING DIGESTED.
            • THIS STOPS THE LEVEL OF GLUCOSE IN THE BLOOD FROM GETTING TOO HIGH AND IT IS A VERY EFFECTIVE TREATMENT
              • THE AMOUNT OF INSULIN THAT NEEDS TO BE INJECTED DEPENDS ON THE PERSONS DIET AND HOW ACTIVE THEY ARE.
        • TYPE 2 - THE PERSONBECOMES RESISTENT TO INSULIN. THIS CAN CAUSE BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL TO RISE TO A DANGEROUS LEVEL
          • USUALLY CONTOLLED BY AVIODING FOODS RICH IN SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES i.e SUGAR (WHICH CAUSE GLUCOSE LEVELS TO RISE RAPIDLY

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