B2 - Keeping Healthy

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  • B2
    • Microorganism and disease
      • Viruses
        • smallest microorganism
        • needs a host body
      • Bacteria
        • single celled
        • No nucleus
        • most don't cause disease
      • can't be seen with naked eye
      • Symptoms of infectous disease
        • Once inside the body, mircoorganisms reproduce
        • damage cells
          • bursting them (lysis)
          • produce toxins
          • Once damage reaches certain level, symptons appear.
    • Fighting Infection and Body Defences
      • Physical barriers
        • Skin
          • Has to be cut to allow entry
        • Sweat
          • Antimicrobial properties (chemicals that kill bacteria)
        • Eye
          • Protected by chemicals in tears
        • Stomach
          • Stomach acid sterilises food, killing microorganisms.
      • Immune Response
        • Neutrophils
          • White blood cell
          • Moves around body in bloodstream
          • Engulfs microorganisms and digests them.
          • Non-specific behaviour.
        • B-Cells
          • They make antibodies
          • Specific behaviour
            • Target the same organism if it re-invades
          • Memory cells
        • Antibodies and Antigens
          • They make antibodies
          • Unique markers
            • Made out of protien
            • Antigens
          • Antibodies produced by B-Cells only fit onto one particular type of antigen
          • Once antibodies are attached to the antigens of the invading cells, white blood cells come along and consume them
            • This process allows the immune sytem to act fast if it re-infects
              • Gives immunity for future
                • Once antibodies are attached to the antigens of the invading cells, white blood cells come along and consume them
                  • This process allows the immune sytem to act fast if it re-infects
                    • Gives immunity for future
      • Vaccination
        • Helps body develop long-term immunity
          • producing antibodies
        • HOW THEY WORK:
          • 1) Injection of vaccine - A safe from of the disease causing microorganism injected.
          • 2) Immune response triggered - white blood cells produce antibodies
          • 3) Memory cells remain in body - they patrol body, waiting for re-infection.
        • To prevent epidemic - vaccinate as many people as possible
        • Risks
          • Genetic differences
            • Many react different ways
            • side effects
          • Balance side effects with risk of getting disease
        • Testing Drugs and Vaccines
          • Tested for safety and effectiveness.
          • Tests are carried out on human cells in laboratories *
          • Tests are carried out on animals *
          • Clinical trials carried out after inital tests *
            • On healthy volunteers to test for safety
            • On people with the illness to test for safety and effectiveness.
          • Open Trials/Blind Trials/Double Blind Trials
          • Placebos
            • Dummy drugs that contain no medication
            • Ethical dilemmas.
      • Antimicrobials and Antibiotics
        • Antimicrobials are chemicals that kill bacteria, fungi and viruses.
        • Antibiotics are chemicals that are only effective against bacteria.
        • Resistance
          • Mutations of genes of microorganisms reproduce and pass on the resistance.
          • Preventing resistance
            • Only prescribe when completely necessary
            • Always complete course of antibiotics
      • The Circulatory System
        • The Heart
          • Provides cells with oxygen and dissolved food for respiration
          • Blood removes carbon dioxide and water as waste products
          • It's a double pump because blood returns to it twice.
          • Mainly made up of muscle cells.
          • Heart Disease
            • Caused by lifestyle or genetic factors.
              • Lifestyle factors: poor diet, cigarette smoking, drugs, stress
            • Fatty deposits bulid up in the blood vessels.
              • Restricts blood flow, so muscle cells don't get enough oxygen and nutrients
                • This causes heart attacks
            • Reducing Risk
              • Don't smoke
              • Reduce salt intake
              • Maintain healthy body weight
              • Monitor cholesterol levels
        • Arteries, Veins and Capillaries
          • Arteries
            • Carry blood away from the heart, towards the organs
            • Nothing can pass through their walls.
          • Veins
            • Carry blood from the organs, back to the heart.
            • Things can't pass through their walls.
          • Capillaries
            • Narrow, thin-walled vessels.
            • Allow blood to move through one cell at a time.
            • Dissolved gases and nutrients can move out of it into surrounding cells.
        • Homeostasis
          • The maintenance of a constant internal environment
          • Uses nervous system and hormones to control process
          • Receptors - to detect changes
          • Processing Centres - to recieve info and coordinate responses
          • Effectors - produce response
        • Water Balance
          • Water gained from drinks, food and respiration.
          • Water lost through sweating, breathing, poo and urine.
          • The Kidneys
            • Filter blood to remove urea, excess salt and glucose.
            • 1) Filters small molecules from blood to form urine
              • 2) Reabsorbs sugar for resipration
                • 3) Reabsorbs as much salt as required.
                  • 4) Reabsorbs as much water as required.
                    • 5) Excrets remaining urine.
          • Too low - more water reabsorbed.
          • Too high - urine more watery.
          • ADH
            • Released by pituitary gland.
            • If water level is too low, ADH released.
              • Concentrated urine.
              • Water reabsorbed.
            • Water level too high - its not released.
              • Less permeable, dilute urine.
    • Effect of Alcohol
      • Greater volume of dilute, watery urine.
      • Dehydration - headaches.
      • ADH supressed
      • Effect of Ecstasy
        • Increase heart rate and blood pressure
        • Causes errors of monitoring water content.
        • Brain fails to send messages to kidneys to get rid of extra water.
        • Concentrated when should be dilute.
        • Water can't escape, cells swell up, get crushed against the brian and die. This may cause death.
      • Effects of Cannabis and Nicotine
        • Effect of Ecstasy
          • Increase heart rate and blood pressure
          • Causes errors of monitoring water content.
          • Brain fails to send messages to kidneys to get rid of extra water.
          • Concentrated when should be dilute.
          • Water can't escape, cells swell up, get crushed against the brian and die. This may cause death.
        • Increases heart rate.
        • Cannabis - reduces blood pressure.
        • Nicotine - increases blood pressure.
    • Effects of Cannabis and Nicotine
      • Increases heart rate.
      • Cannabis - reduces blood pressure.
      • Nicotine - increases blood pressure.

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