B1

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  • Created by: JamesW
  • Created on: 08-09-14 17:59
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  • B1
    • Diet and Energy
      • Diet and Metabolic Rate
        • Balance Diet = Nourished. Unbalance Diet = Malnourished
        • Energy In = Energy Out; No change
        • Metabolic Rate = Rate at which chemical reactions take place.
          • The higher the proportion of muscle to fat, the higher the metabolic rate.
        • Metabolic Rate increases during exercise
        • Metabolic rate is effected by genes,
      • Exercise and Health
        • Cholesterol
          • High level of cholesterol increases risk of plaque in the arteries.
            • Causes Bloodclots
          • Can block arteries taking oxygenated blood to the heart - causing cardiac arrest
          • Animal fats increase cholesterol, Unsaturated fats lower it.
          • Some people have naturally low cholesterol - genetic.
        • Good and Bad Cholesterol
          • Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) = BAD
          • High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) = GOOD
            • Helps to remove LDL
    • Pathogens and Infections
      • Disease
        • Microorganism that causes disease = Pathogen
        • Bacteria reproduce and create toxins which make us feel ill
        • Viruses reproduce in a cell and destroy it when they burst out
        • Epidemic = Wide spread
        • Pandemic = Country/Countries spread
        • 1840's deaths recognized from dead bodies - bacteria
      • Fighting Infection
        • Phagocytosis
          • "Cell devouring process"
          • Moves toward bacterium... Cytoplasm surrounds... Encapsulated in a vacuole, killed and devoured.
        • Lymphocytes produce antibodies
          • Antibodies stick to antibodies
            • Can kill directly
            • Or rounds them up for phagocytes
          • Some produce antitoxins which destroy the toxins of pathogens
        • Each kind ONLY works against one type of pathogen
          • Lock and Key model
      • Drugs against disease
        • Antibiotics - drugs that kill an infection but leave your cells alone
          • BACTERIA ONLY - NO VIRUSES
          • Some are specialised
          • Agar plate polkodot test - spread bacteria, different antibiotics, which kills more?
        • Antibiotic Resistance
          • Antibiotics create a point of advantage for mutated bacteria
            • New forms of antibiotics needed
          • MRSA = Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
            • Superbug - resistant to most antibiotics
            • Deaths everdecreasing
      • Vaccinations
        • MMR = Measles, mumps and rubella
          • Children have early on
        • Small amount of the virus that is either dead or inactive
          • Phagocytes attack and remember how to produce the correct antibody - ready for if the person catches it for real
            • As new strains appear, new vaccines are made - some diseases cannot have a vaccine as there are so many strains ie. the common cold.
      • Growing Bacteria
        • 'Culture'
        • Sterile technique avoids passing it on
        • You must not touch or breath onto a culturing gel - agar.
        • Seal the culture to avoid contamination from outside
        • Keep below 25 degrees - higher will encourage those that grow in the body to be cultured
        • Why?
          • Harmless bacteria grown in iduistry to make enzymes
          • Bacteria causing illness grown to make vaccines and diagnoses.
    • Co-ordination, Nerves and Hormones
      • The Nervous System
        • Nerve cells carry impulses to and from the brain and spinal chord.
        • Nerve cell = Neuron
        • Neurones
          • Nerve cell = Neuron
      • Simple, short actions use nerves, long-term actions use hormones
      • Hormones
        • Glands secrete hormones and are carried in the bloodstream
        • Most only affect their target organs
        • I.e. Adrenaline - affects heart, breathing muscles, digestive system and eyes.
      • Rod Cells
        • In the retina - sensitive to light
        • Sends light signals to brain which constructs an image
      • Reflex actions
        • Receptor
          • Sensory Neurone
            • Relay Neuron (In CNS)
              • Motor Neuron
                • Affector
                  • Receptor
                    • Sensory Neurone
                      • Relay Neuron (In CNS)
                        • Motor Neuron
                          • Affector
          • Spinal chord shorter route so quicker
            • Fraction of a second to be completed
            • Synapse = gap between neurons
              • Chemical secreted across gap
            • Neurons can carry signals in different ways - from brain = conscious action
        • Controlling The Body

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