Biology B1

Just an overall view of B1

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  • B1
    • Fitness and Blood Pressure
      • Fit is a measure of how well you can perform a physical task
      • Healthy means being free from infections and diseases
      • Blood is pumped round the body via contractions from the heart
        • Blood pressure is highest when the heart contracts- this is systolic pressure
          • When the heart relaxes it is at its lowest- this is Diastolic pressure
        • Different factors can increase blood pressure
          • Smoking
          • Being overwight
          • drinking to much alchol
          • Being under lots of stress
          • Blood pressure can be decreased by making different lifestyle choice
      • High Blood Pressure and Heart Disease
        • Smoking can increase Blood Pressure
          • CARBON MONOXIDE- this combines with the haemoglobin in red blood cells, which reduces the amount of oxygen that they can carry.
          • NICOTINE- this increases heart rate.  The heart contracts more often, increasing blood pressure
        • A poor diet can lead to heart disease
          • Saturated fats can cause a build up of Cholestrol
            • Cholestrol builds up to form a plaque in the arter, which narrow the artery
        • Thrombosis (blood clot) also restricts blood flow
    • Eating Healthy
      • FATS- provide energy, act as an energy store and provide insulation
        • Fats are made up of GLYCEROL and FATTY ACIDS
      • PROTEINS- they are needed for growth and repair of tissue, and to provide energy in emergencies
        • Proteins are made up of AMINO ACIDS.  They don't get stored
      • CARBOHYDRATES- provide energy
        • Carbohydrates are made up of simple sugars like glucose.  They are stored in th liver as GLYCOGEN or converted to FATS
      • WATER- To prevent dehydration
      • Age
        • Children and teenagers need more protein for growth. Older people need more clacium to protect against degenerative bones diseeases
      • Gender
        • Fesamles need more iron
      • Physical Activity
        • Active people need more protein for muscle develpometn and more carbohydrates for energy
    • B1
      • Diet Problems
        • EAR= O.6 x body mass (kg)
        • BMI= Body mass (kg) / (height m)2
        • Eating disorders cause preoblems like Anorexia can lead to self starvation
      • Infectious diseases
        • Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease. There are four types
          • fungi
          • Bcateria
          • Viruses
          • Protozoa
        • The immune systemdelas with pathogens
          • 1) Consuming them
            • White blood cells can engulf foreign cells and digest them
          • 2) Producing Antitoxins
            • Antitoxins counter the effect of any poison (toxins) produced by invaiding pathogens
  • If the pressure is too high it can cause blood vessels to burst, and this can lead to strokes, brain dmage and kidney damage
    • Blood pressure is highest when the heart contracts- this is systolic pressure
      • When the heart relaxes it is at its lowest- this is Diastolic pressure
  • High salt levels can increase blood pressure
    • High Blood Pressure and Heart Disease
      • Smoking can increase Blood Pressure
        • CARBON MONOXIDE- this combines with the haemoglobin in red blood cells, which reduces the amount of oxygen that they can carry.
        • NICOTINE- this increases heart rate.  The heart contracts more often, increasing blood pressure
      • A poor diet can lead to heart disease
        • Saturated fats can cause a build up of Cholestrol
          • Cholestrol builds up to form a plaque in the arter, which narrow the artery
      • Thrombosis (blood clot) also restricts blood flow
  • VITAMINS and MINERALS- various functions
    • Eating Healthy
      • FATS- provide energy, act as an energy store and provide insulation
        • Fats are made up of GLYCEROL and FATTY ACIDS
      • PROTEINS- they are needed for growth and repair of tissue, and to provide energy in emergencies
        • Proteins are made up of AMINO ACIDS.  They don't get stored
      • CARBOHYDRATES- provide energy
        • Carbohydrates are made up of simple sugars like glucose.  They are stored in th liver as GLYCOGEN or converted to FATS
      • WATER- To prevent dehydration
      • Age
        • Children and teenagers need more protein for growth. Older people need more clacium to protect against degenerative bones diseeases
      • Gender
        • Fesamles need more iron
      • Physical Activity
        • Active people need more protein for muscle develpometn and more carbohydrates for energy

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