b1 2

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: bwillows1
  • Created on: 11-05-14 11:54
View mindmap
  • B1
    • genetic testing
      • used on embryos children and adults
      • when embryos are produced using IVF doctors can check embryos for certain genetic disorders
          • important if parents are sufferers
          • healthy ones implanted
          • embryos with genetic disorder is destroyed
      • doctors can test the  fetuses in the womb by testing the fluid surrounding the fetus
      • children and adults can be tested to see if children are likely to inherit genetic disorder
      • children and adults can be tested before certain drugs are prescribed to them
      • issues
        • may not be 100% accurate
          • contamination or misinterpretation
          • false positive/negative result
            • people could make decisions based on incorrect information
              • contamination or misinterpretation
        • may no be 100% safe
          • could cause misscarrige
        • should other family members be tested?
        • should you terminate the pregnancy?
        • discrimination
        • insurance companies might not give insurance
    • clones
      • genetically identical organisms
        • asexual reproduction
          • bacteria// some plants // some animals
        • same genes and same alleles of those genes
          • because they have the same alleles any differences in them are cause by the environment
      • nature makes clones through asexual reproduction
        • means that there is only 1 parent
          • offspring is genetically identical to each other and the parent
        • few animals can reproduce asexually
          • greenfly do not need to mate
            • can just lay eggs which develop into more identical females.
            • they can also produce sexually
      • many plants can also produce asexually
        • some plants produce horizontal stems called runners
          • that move out from the base of the plant and form new clones at their tips
            • strawberry plants
        • other plants produce underground fleshy structures called bulbs
          • these grow into a new identical plant
            • e.g garlic
    • stem cells
      • most cells in your body are specialized for a particular job
        • white blood cells- fight infections   but can not carry oxygen like red blood  cells
        • most cells in unicellular organisms become specialized during early development
          • some cells are specialized and can develop into different types of cells depending on what instructions they are given
              • Embryonic stem cells
                • unspecialized cells found in early embryos
                • stem cells are removed from the embryo and then the embryo is destroyed
                • potential to turn into any kind of cell
                • some people say it is unethical
              • Adult stem cells
                • unspecialized cells found in adult animals
                • involved in maintaining and repairing old or damaged tissue
                • can specialise into many cell types but not all
                • can be safely removed from patients e.g by extracting bone marrow, where no embryos have to be destroyed


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all b12 resources »