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  • b1.4 Adaptations    & inderpendence
    • plants compete for
      • food
        • Absorb nutrients from soil
      • space
        • They need room for their leaves to spread out to obtain light for photosynthesis
      • water
        • Absorb water by their roots
    • animals compete for
      • food
        • Herbivores compete for vegetation and Carnivores compete for prey
      • space
        • They need space to breed and compete for a mate. They also need space to hunt in
      • water
        • Need water in order to surviveed
      • mates
        • to increase their reproductive success
    • indicators
      • invertebrates
        • used as a marker of water pollution (heavy polluted water contains low levels of dissolved oxygen)
      • oxygen sensor
        • measures levels of oxygen
      • rainfall gauge
        • measures rainfall
      • lichen
        • shows levels of air pollution. is sensitive to sulfur dioxide
      • rat-tailed maggots and sludge worms
        • indicate high level of water pollution
    • adaptation is the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.
    • extremeophiles
      • cryophile
        • lives in extremely cold environments as has a cell membrane rich in lipids
      • halophile
        • lives in salty environments and can cope with the high concentrations of salt by expending energy to exclude salt from their cytoplsm
      • acidophile
        • lives in acidic environments where the pH level is less than 3
      • thermophile
        • lives in hot environments. has proteins that can withstand high temperatures
      • an extremeophile is a microorganism that lives in conditions of extreme temperature


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