B1.1 keeping healthy- fighting disease

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  • Created on: 19-02-16 15:02
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  • B1.1 keeping healthy- fighting disease
    • Pathogens
      • micro-organisms that enter the body and cause disease are called pathogens
      • Bacteria
        • very small living cells which reproduce in your body
        • make you feel ill by doing 2 things
          • producing toxins
          • damaging your cells
      • Viruses
        • they are not cells. They are about 1/100th the size of bacteria
        • they replicate themselves by invading your cells, where they can then use the cells machinery to replicate themselves.
        • once the virus has replicated itself the cell usually bursts and it is this cell damage that causes you to feel ill.
          • they replicate themselves by invading your cells, where they can then use the cells machinery to replicate themselves.
    • The body's defences
      • the skin
        • if you cut yourself pathogens can get into the bloodstream through the wound
        • To help prevent this small cell fragments called platelets help blood clot quickly to help seal the injury
          • if you cut yourself pathogens can get into the bloodstream through the wound
          • if the blood contains low numbers of platelets it will clot slower
      • the immune system
        • B1.1 keeping healthy- fighting disease
          • Pathogens
            • micro-organisms that enter the body and cause disease are called pathogens
            • Bacteria
              • very small living cells which reproduce in your body
              • make you feel ill by doing 2 things
                • producing toxins
                • damaging your cells
            • Viruses
              • they are not cells. They are about 1/100th the size of bacteria
              • once the virus has replicated itself the cell usually bursts and it is this cell damage that causes you to feel ill.
            • The body's defences
              • the skin
                • To help prevent this small cell fragments called platelets help blood clot quickly to help seal the injury
                  • if the blood contains low numbers of platelets it will clot slower
              • the immune system
                • if something does get through the body's defence the immune system kicks in
                • most important part is the white blood cells
                  • they travel around in your blood and are everywhere in your body patrolling for pathogens
                • once the WBC's come across a pathogen they have three lines of attack
                  • 1. The WBC engulfs the pathogen and digests it
                    • 2.They produce antibodies produced by the bacteria that is invading your body
                      • 3.They produce antibodies. The invading pathogen has antigen on its surface (these are unique to every strain of pathogen) the WBC produces antibodies which lock onto the foreign antigen and kills the invading pathogen
                        • the body remembers the specific antibody and so if the same pathogen with the same antigens invades your body again it quickly produces them to stop you from getting ill.
              • Mucus in the respiratory tract
                • it is lined with mucus, which is sticky
                • the mucus then traps the pathogens which are in the air and stops them from reaching the lungs
                • tiny hairs in the respiratory tract beat to move the mucus away from your lungs and towards your mouth
            • Vaccinations
              • vaccinations work by injecting small amounts of dead or inactive micro-organisms into your body.
                • this works because they have antigens on their surface and the body produces antibodies to counteract them even though they're inactive
                  • the body remembers these antigens so it can counteract the pathogen if it ever invades your body
              • MMR-Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine
                • must learn this example for exam!
                • pathogens alive but weakened
              • some vaccinations can wear off over time or a new starin might have appeared so you may need to get a booster
              • Pros
                • can help control infectious diseases that were once common.
                  • eridicated smallpoxx
                • epidemics can be prevented
              • Cons
                • they don't always work
                • you can have a bad reaction to them sometimes, for example some have seizures , fever or swelling
                • if a disease is eridacated there is no resistance to it and so if a country has a strain of the disease it can be used as a biological weapon
                  • smallpox for example
            • Drugs
              • different types of drugs
                • Painkillers
                  • they relieve the symptoms but don't cure them
                  • can mask a serious problem
                • Antibiotics e.g penicillin
                  • they actually kill or prevent the growth of bacteria which cause the problem without harming your own body's cells
                  • different antibiotics for different bacteria
                  • they don't destroy viruses as viruses use your body cell and it is very difficult to produce drugs that stop them without harming your own cells
              • Antibiotic resistance
                • sometimes bacteria mutates and becomes immune to antibiotics
                  • example is MRSA
                  • due to natural selection
                • if some of the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics the resistant strain will survive and produce meaning you get a serious infection that cannot be treated
                  • example of natural selection
                • to slow down the development of resistance to antibiotics you cannot over use
                  • doctors avoid over prescribing them and so only get it for something serious
            • Fighting disease past and future
              • Past
                • Semmelweis
                  • worked in vienna genral hospital in the 1840's
                  • while working at the hospital he noticed women were dying in huge numbers after childbirth due to puerperal fever
                  • believed that doctors spreading disease on unwashed hands. He was right
                    • while working at the hospital he noticed women were dying in huge numbers after childbirth due to puerperal fever
                  • told the doctors to wash their hands in an anti-septic solution, this cut the death rates from 12% to 2%
                  • doctors didn't believe him as germs not discovered yet
                    • so he couldnt provide an explanation
                  • when he left the hospital his methods were dropped allowing death rates to rise again
              • Future
                • spread of antibiotic resistance
                  • due to antibiotic overuse
                  • becoming more common
                  • hard to get rid of as no antibiotics
                    • and can be passed on to others so an issue
                  • encouraging drug companies to produce new drugs that work against these new resistant strains of bacteria
                • the mutation of bacteria
                  • no treatment as resistant to antibiotics
                  • could spread as no way of containing it so could cause an epidemic
                  • new strain so no one is immune to it and so everyone is at risk
                • viruses
                  • often mutate
                    • makes it hard to develop vaccines as antigens on them can change
                    • big problem if infectious virus evolved very quickly and no vaccine
                      • example is flu
                  • worst case scenario a pandemic could occur
          • if something does get through the body's defence the immune system kicks in
          • most important part is the white blood cells
            • they travel around in your blood and are everywhere in your body patrolling for pathogens
          • once the WBC's come across a pathogen they have three lines of attack
            • 1. The WBC engulfs the pathogen and digests it
              • 2.They produce antibodies produced by the bacteria that is invading your body
                • 3.They produce antibodies. The invading pathogen has antigen on its surface (these are unique to every strain of pathogen) the WBC produces antibodies which lock onto the foreign antigen and kills the invading pathogen
                  • the body remembers the specific antibody and so if the same pathogen with the same antigens invades your body again it quickly produces them to stop you from getting ill.
        • Mucus in the respiratory tract
          • it is lined with mucus, which is sticky
          • the mucus then traps the pathogens which are in the air and stops them from reaching the lungs
          • tiny hairs in the respiratory tract beat to move the mucus away from your lungs and towards your mouth
      • Vaccinations
        • vaccinations work by injecting small amounts of dead or inactive micro-organisms into your body.
          • this works because they have antigens on their surface and the body produces antibodies to counteract them even though they're inactive
            • the body remembers these antigens so it can counteract the pathogen if it ever invades your body
        • MMR-Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine
          • must learn this example for exam!
          • pathogens alive but weakened
        • some vaccinations can wear off over time or a new starin might have appeared so you may need to get a booster
        • Pros
          • can help control infectious diseases that were once common.
            • eridicated smallpoxx
          • epidemics can be prevented
        • Cons
          • they don't always work
          • you can have a bad reaction to them sometimes, for example some have seizures , fever or swelling
          • if a disease is eridacated there is no resistance to it and so if a country has a strain of the disease it can be used as a biological weapon
            • smallpox for example
      • Drugs
        • different types of drugs
          • Painkillers
            • they relieve the symptoms but don't cure them
            • can mask a serious problem
          • Antibiotics e.g penicillin
            • they actually kill or prevent the growth of bacteria which cause the problem without harming your own body's cells
            • different antibiotics for different bacteria
            • they don't destroy viruses as viruses use your body cell and it is very difficult to produce drugs that stop them without harming your own cells
        • Antibiotic resistance
          • sometimes bacteria mutates and becomes immune to antibiotics
            • example is MRSA
            • due to natural selection
          • if some of the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics the resistant strain will survive and produce meaning you get a serious infection that cannot be treated
            • example of natural selection
          • to slow down the development of resistance to antibiotics you cannot over use
            • doctors avoid over prescribing them and so only get it for something serious
      • Fighting disease past and future
        • Past
          • Semmelweis
            • worked in vienna genral hospital in the 1840's
            • believed that doctors spreading disease on unwashed hands. He was right
              • told the doctors to wash their hands in an anti-septic solution, this cut the death rates from 12% to 2%
              • doctors didn't believe him as germs not discovered yet
                • so he couldnt provide an explanation
              • when he left the hospital his methods were dropped allowing death rates to rise again
          • Future
            • spread of antibiotic resistance
              • due to antibiotic overuse
              • becoming more common
              • hard to get rid of as no antibiotics
                • and can be passed on to others so an issue
              • encouraging drug companies to produce new drugs that work against these new resistant strains of bacteria
            • the mutation of bacteria
              • no treatment as resistant to antibiotics
              • could spread as no way of containing it so could cause an epidemic
              • new strain so no one is immune to it and so everyone is at risk
            • viruses
              • often mutate
                • makes it hard to develop vaccines as antigens on them can change
                • big problem if infectious virus evolved very quickly and no vaccine
                  • example is flu
              • worst case scenario a pandemic could occur

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