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  • B1.1 - Keeping Healthy
    • Treatment of disease
      • Some medicines such as painkillers relieve the symptoms of infectious diseases, but they don't kill pathogens
      • Antibiotics kill infective bacterial pathogens inside the body. Antibiotics have greatly reduced the number of deaths.
      • Antibiotics don't kill viral pathogens which live and reproduce inside cells.
      • An epidermic is a local outbreak of disease. A pandemic is a global outbreak of disease and affects more people
      • Pandemics kill more people than epidermic
    • Antibiotic Resistance
      • Many strains of bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics as a result of natural selection
      • Antibiotic-resistant strains occur when pathogen mutate
        • 1) A pathogen mutates, producing a new strain
        • 2) New strain may be resistant
        • 3) The new resistant strain spreads rapidly because we are not immune to it and there is no effective treatment
      • Increase in the number of resistant strains:
        • Overuse of antibiotics and prescribing inappropriateantibiotics
    • Investigating Microorganisms
      • You can investigate the effect of disinfectants and antibiotics on microorganisms in the lab using an uncontaminated culture of microorganisms
      • Agar is commonly used
      • Nutrients are added to the agar to provide ideal growing conditions
    • Preparing Uncontaminated Culture
      • 1) Sterilise petri dishes in autoclave, high pressure to kill unwanted
      • 2) Sterilise inoculating loops, bunsen burner
      • 3) Transfer of microorganisms onto petri dish
        • 4) Sealing petri dish - tape


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