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  • B1.1 - Keeping Healthy
    • Defence Against Infectious Diseases
      • Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases are called pathogens
        • Two main types of pathogens: BACTERIA and VIRUS
      • WHITE BLOOD CELLS help defend against pathogens by: ingesting pathogens, producing antitoxins to neutralise toxins, produce antibodies to destroy particular pathogens
      • BACTERIA: are very small, they reproduce rapidly, may produce toxins that make you feel ill and can cause illness such as tuberculosis, cholera and tetanus
      • VIRUSES: are smaller than bacteria, reproduce rapidly, may produce toxins that make you feel ill and cause illnesses such as the flu, colds etc.
    • Immunity and Vaccinations
      • When white blood cells produce specific antibodies to kill a pathogen, it leads to immunity.
      • White blood cells will recognise the pathogen if it comes back
      • Steps of vaccination
        • 1) small amounts of a dead pathogen are injected
        • 2) white blood cells produce antibodies to destroy the pathogen
        • 3) you then have an acquired immunity to this pathogen because the white blood cells sensitised to it
    • Preventing Disease
      • washing their hands before dealing with a patient
      • Semmelweiss recognised how important it was to be hygienic


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