Biology B1.1

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  • B1.1- Keeping Healthy
    • To achieve optimum health:
      • Right balance of food types
        • Carbs, fat and protein are used to release energy and build cells
      • Mineral ions and vitamins are needed
        • Without them, person becomes malnourished
      • Person must get energy balance correct
        • If energy taken in = energy used, mass will stay changed
          • If a person eats too little, they may be undernouris-hed and suffer from deficiency diseases
        • Eating too much can lead to obesity
          • Obesity can then lead to type 2 diabetes, cancer etc.
          • These problems can be avoided by more exercise and less carbohydrates
    • Metabolic rate
      • The speed of chemical reactions tat take place in the body
      • Speed of which can be inherited from parents
        • Cholesterol levels can also be inherited from parents
          • Good cholesterol (high density lipoprotein) is needed for cell membranes and to make vital substances
            • Low density lipoproteins can increase risk of heart disease
              • Foods rich in saturated fats also increase risk of heart disease
              • Cholesterol lines the artery walls and causes a blood clot/stops blood flow to heart
      • Affected by proportion of muscle to fat and amount of exercise a person does
    • Pathogens cause infectious diseases
      • Bacteria or viruses
      • When they enter the body they reproduce rapidly and produce toxins.
      • Viruses reproduce inside the cells
      • Semmelweis realised how infection can be transferred from person to person
        • Told doctors to wash their hands
    • White blood cells
      • Part of the immune system
      • Can ingest pathogens
      • Can produce antibodies to counteract pathogens antigens
      • Skin also prevents pathogens into the body
        • Are also trapped by mucus and killed by hydrochloric acid in the stomach
    • Antibiotics kil bacteria
      • Painkillers relieve symptoms but don't kill the pathogen
      • Viruses are hard destroy as damage to cells may occur
    • Bacteria can grown in agar jelly
      • Everything must be sterilised so no unwanted microorganisms contaminate the culture
      • Agar jelly is used as it is a culture medium- contains carbohydrate and other minerals and chemicals
      • Must be kept at 25 degrees celsius in schools and 35 in industry
      • Must be provided oxygen
    • Pathogens can mutate
      • Few people are immune to these mutated pathogens, so they spread
        • People can become immune to certain things by vaccinations
          • Dead or inactive forms of pathogen is injected into body
            • White blood cells respond by producing lots of antibodies
              • They then memorise the antigens and can reproduce antibodies very quickly if the pathogen enters the body again
      • Cannot be defeated by antibiotics
      • Spread by natural selection- pathogens kill normal pathogens but not mutated ones.


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