B1

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  • B1
    • Blood pressure
      • High blood pressure
        • Factors increasing blood pressure
          • Smoking
          • Overweight
          • Alcohol
          • Stress
        • Reducing blood pressure
          • Regular exercsie
          • Balanced diet
          • MEdication
        • Causes
          • Blood vessels to burst
          • Brain damage
          • Kidney damage
          • Strokes
      • Low blood pressure
        • Poor circulation
        • Dizziness
        • Fainting
      • Smoking and blood pressure
        • Carbon monoxide
          • combines with haemoglobin
          • Haemoglobin in red blood cells
          • Reduces oxygen-carrying capacity
          • Increases heart rate - increases blood pressure
        • Nicotine
          • Increases heart rate
      • Poor diet and blood pressure
        • Saturated fats - cholesterol build up
          • Cholesterol is a fatty substance
          • Cholesterol is used to make cell membranes
          • Cholesterol builds up in your arteries - too much
          • Build up of cholesterol forms plaques - narrow arteries.
          • Plaques restrict blood flow - heart attacks
        • Salt
          • Too much - high blood pressure
          • High blood pressure increases risk of damage to arteries
            • Damage can lead to plques
              • Plaques restrict blood flow - heart attacks
      • Narrow arteries
        • Heart supplied by coronary arteries
        • restrics blood flow to heart
        • A thrombosis (blood clot) restricts blood flow
        • If heart is cut off from blood supply - heart attack
    • Eating healthily
      • Balanced diet
        • Carbohydrate
          • simple sugars (e.g. glucose)
          • stored in liver as glycogen or converted to fats
          • Provide energy
        • Fats
          • Provide energy
          • Act as an energy store
          • provide insulation
          • Fatty acids and glycerol
          • Stored under skin or around organs (adipose tissue)
        • Proteins
          • Needed for growth and repair
          • Provide energy in emergencies
          • Amino acids
          • Not stored
        • Vitamins and minerals
          • Various functions
          • Vitamin C - prevent scurvy
          • Iron - needed to make haemoglobin
        • Water
          • Prevents dehydration
      • Reasons for different diets
        • Religious reasons
          • Hindus don't eat meat
        • Personal reasons
          • Vegetarians or vegans
        • Medical reasons
          • Allergies or intolerance
      • Diet problems
        • Kwashiorkor
          • Too little protein
          • Common in developing countries
            • Overpopulation and lack of money
          • EAR
        • Teenagers need more protein for growing
        • Pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers
          • More protein to produce milk and to help the foetus
        • Eating disorders
          • Anorexia nervosa
            • Self starvation
            • Poor self image
            • Low self esteem
          • Bulimia nervosa
            • Binge eating
            • Poor self image
            • Low self esteem
            • lead to tooth decay - stomach acid
          • Hosts for other diseases
            • Liver failure
            • Kidney failure
            • heart attacks
            • muscle wastage
            • low blood pressure
            • mineral deficiencies
    • Infectious Diseases
      • Pathogens - micro organisms that cause disease
        • Fungi
        • Bacteria
        • Viruses
        • Protozoa
      • Malaria
        • Caused by protozoan
        • Carried by mosquitoes
        • A parasite - lives off another organism (a host)
        • Mosquitoes are vectors
          • They carry the disease without getting it
        • Stopping the spread of malaria
          • Draining water
          • Spraying water with insecticides
          • Fish introduced to eat mosquito larvae
          • Mosquito nets
      • Immune system
        • Consumes
          • White blood cells engulf and digest
        • Producing anitbodies
          • Pathogens have unique molecules on the surface
          • White blood cells produce proteins - antibodies
          • Antibodies lock onto the pathogen
          • Antibodies are produced quickly now
          • Some stay in the blood as memory cells
            • If the same pathogen invades these cells will kill it - (naturally immune)
        • Producing antigens
          • Antitoxins counter the effect of toxins
      • Immunisation
        • Vaccination
          • Injecting dead or inactive pathogens
          • Your white blood cells produce antibodies
          • Some antibodies stay in your blood as memory cells
        • active immunity
          • Make your own antibodies
          • becoming naturally immune
          • Usually permenant
        • Passive immunity
          • Antibodies are made by another organism
          • temporary
        • Benefits and risk of vaccination
          • Short term side effects
            • swelling
            • Redness
          • Some people think they cause other diseases
            • MMR - autism
          • Prevents spread of disease
      • Antibiotics
        • Kill bacteria
        • Antivirals used to kill viruses
        • Some bacteria are naturally resistant
        • Misuse can lead to resistance
          • over prescribing
          • not finishing course
        • MRSA
          • the hospital 'superbug'
          • antibiotic resistant strain
    • Cancer
      • Benign
        • Tumour grows until no more room
        • The cells stay where they are
        • Not normally dangerous
      • Malignant
        • tumour grows and can spread
        • dangerous and can be fatal
      • Reducing risk
        • healthy lifestyle
        • healthy diet
        • not smoking (lung cancer)
        • Eating less processed meat (colon cancer)
    • Drugs
      • Computer models
        • Simulate a human response
        • First
        • Not as accurate as live organism
      • Human tissues
        • Second
      • Animals
        • Cruel
        • But safest way
      • Clinical trial
        • Two groups
          • One given a placebo or best existing treatment
            • Allows for the placebo effect
          • The other the drug
        • Blind
          • The patient doesn't know if they are taking the real drug
        • Double blind
          • Neither doctor or patient know until the results are collected
      • Drugs can be beneficial and harmful
        • Drugs alter the way the body works
        • Some drugs are medically useful
        • Drugs are addictive
          • When they stop taking the drug - withdrawal symptoms
          • Rehabilitation can be used
            • Help and support to overcome addiction
        • Tolerance can develop
          • A higher dose is needed for the same effect
      • Types of drugs
        • Depressants
          • Alcohol
          • solvents
          • temazepam
          • decrease activity of brain
          • slows down responses of nervous system
            • Slow reactions
            • poor judgement of speed and distance
              • Dangerous to drive
        • Stimulants
          • Nicotine
          • esctasy
          • caffeine
          • increase activity of brain
          • make you feel alert and awake
          • often used to treat depression
        • Painkillers
          • aspirin
          • paracetamol
          • reducing the number of stimuli at nerve endings near injury
        • Performance enhancers
          • anabolic steroirds
          • Help build muscle
          • They are banned from sport
        • Hallucinogens
          • LSD
          • distort what's seen and heard
          • Altering the pathways the brain sends messages along
        • Illegal drugs
          • Class A, most dangerous
          • Class A - LSD, heroin, ecstasy, cocaine
          • Class B- cannabis and speed
    • Smoking and alcohol
      • Smoking
        • Heart disease
          • Carbon monoxide
            • Reduces ozugen carrying capacity of red blood cells
        • Lung, throat, mouth and oesophageal cancer
          • Tar collects in lungs
          • Cigarette smoke contains carcinogens.
          • Carcinogens make mutations in the DNA more likely
          • Cell division can get out of control - malignant tumours can form
        • Smoker's cough
          • Smoking damages cilia on epithlial tissue lining the trachea
          • Damages bronchi and bronchioles which encourages production of mucus
          • Excess mucus can't be cleared
          • Mucus sticks to the air passages, causing smoker's cough
          • The lungs lose their elasticity, causing emphysema
        • Low birth weight babies
          • Low oxygen in blood deprives foetus of oxygen
      • Alcohol
        • depressant drug
        • reduces activity of nervous system
        • People feel less inhibited
        • Poisonous
        • Broken down by enzymes in the liver
          • Too much alcohol can lead to death of liver cells
            • Forming scar tissue - cirrhosis
            • The liver can't clean blood - dangerous substances build up
        • Causes dehydration
        • Drunkness
          • Slurred speech
          • impaired judgement
          • blurred vision
          • poor balance
          • sleepiness
          • Poor coordination
    • The Eye
      • cornea refracts light into eye
      • The iris controls how much light enter the pupil
      • The lens refracts light, focusing it on the retina
      • The retina is covered in receptors
        • rods are sensitive to dim light, not colour
        • cones sensitive to different colours
          • red-green colour blindness is due to a lack of cone cells
      • The optic nerve carries impulses from the receptors to the brain
      • Focusing at distant objects
        • ciliary muscle relaxes
        • suspensory ligaments pull tight
        • lens becomes less rounded, light is refracted less
      • Focusing at near objects
        • Ciliary muscle contracts
        • Suspensory ligaments slacken
        • Lens becomes more rounded, light is refracted more
      • Long sighted
        • Unable to focus on near objects
        • Lens is the wrong shape
        • Lens doesn't bend light enough
        • Eyeball is too short
        • The images of near objects are focused behind the retina
        • Glasses or contact lenses with a convex lens correct it
      • Short sighted
        • Unable to focus on distant objects
        • Lens is wrong shape
        • Lens bends light too much
        • Eyeball is too long
        • The images of distant objects are focused in front of the retina
        • Glasses or contacts with a concave lens correct it
        • Corneal eye surgery
    • Binocular vision
      • Two eyes work together
      • Your brain compares the images seen by each eye
      • The more similarities, the further away
      • Allows distance to be judged well
      • Narrow field of view
    • Neurones and reflexes
      • Central Nervous System (CNS)
        • Consists of the brain and spinal cord
        • Three types of neurone
          • sensory neurones
            • When there's a change in environment
            • Carry information from receptors to CNS
          • relay neurones
          • motor neurone
            • CNS sends information to an effector (muscle or gland) along a motor neurone
        • Stimulus, Receptor, Sensory,   CNS, Motor, Effector, Response
        • The job of the CNS is to coordinate the information
      • Reflex actions
        • The NS uses electrical impulses for v. quick responses
        • Automatic
        • The brain isn't involved in a reflex arc
        • Sensory neurone connects to a relay neurone which links to a motor neurone
        • They have a protective role
      • Motor Neurones
        • Electrical impulse is passed along the axon
        • The connection between two neurones is a synapse
          • The impulse triggers the release of transmitter chemicals which diffuse across the gap
    • Homeostatis
      • Maintaining a steady internal environment
        • Levels of carbon dioxide
        • Water content
        • Body temperature
      • Negative feedback
        • Changes in environment cause reponses to counteract that change
        • This means internal environment is kept steady
      • Body temperature
        • Controlled by brain
        • Brain contains receptors sensitive to blood temperature
      • When you are too hot:
        • Hairs lie flate
        • Sweat is produced
        • Blood vessels close to surface (vasodilation)
        • You can get dehydrated, or get heat stroke
      • When you are too cold
        • Hairs stand on end
        • little sweat is produced
        • Blood vessels near surface contrict (vasoconstriction)
        • You can get hypothermia
  • Sheath along the axon acts as an electrical insulator, speeding up the impulse
  • They're long, speeds up the impulse
  • The chemicals bind to receptor molecules in the membrane of the next neurone
  • Stimulant drugs increase the amount of the chemicals, increasing the frequency of impulses
  • Depressants bind with receptor molecules in the membrane in the next neurone, blocking impulses
    • This decreases brain activity

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