• Created by: ecotts
  • Created on: 31-03-18 16:35
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  • Audience
    • Hypodermic Needle Theory
      • Whatever the intended message in the media is, it is passively accepted by the audience
        • they take the message and inject it into the audience so they all interpret and understand the same
      • Gebner
        • Exposer to repeated patterns of representation can shape and influence  how people perceive the world around them
        • People who watched violence on T.V for example, he believed saw the world as violent
      • Orbach + Wolf
        • Repeated representations of women apprence and the way they should look change how they though of themselves
      • Bandura
        • Bobo Doll Experiment
        • If children are exposed to violent acts within the media; films tv, they are likely to copy
      • Functionalist
        • The mass media are responsible for boundary maintenance
          • Representations of crime reinforce social exceptions about normal and abnormal behaviour
      • Desensitisation effect
        • McCabe & Martin
          • Screen violence convinces children that violence is ok
            • The normal rules that govern conflict and difference can be suspended
        • Newson
          • Exposer to onscreen violence encouraged children to identify with the perpetrators rather than the victims
          • Teenagers see thousands of killings and violence
            • In the US the average 18 year old has views 16,000 t.v murders
            • This exposer may have a drip-drip effect resulting in them becoming desensitised to violence
        • Huesmann et al
          • found people  who watched violent shows at an early age were more likely to be aggressive in their 20s
        • Anderson & Bushman
          • Sustained exposer to violent games increase aggression and acceptive of real life violence
            • However it does not result in copy cat behaviour but claim it does change the way people think about violence
      • Censorship
        • British Board of Film Classification
          • gave the power to apply age certificates (e.g. PG, 12A, 12, 18's etc)
          • They also insist the film-makers make cuts relating to bad language science of drug use and violence
        • T.V companies agreed on voluntary censorship by adopting the nan o'clock watershed
          • Meaning T.V shows that feature bad language, sexual or violent content can only be on after 9
        • T.V shows should also have warnings before films or programmes with regards to sexual or violent content


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