Attraction & relationships 1

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  • Created on: 08-05-15 23:47
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  • Attraction & Relationships 1
    • Gender & Happiness - Crossley & Langridge (2005): Men - higher importance of: good social life, able to play sports, being liked, sexual activity, link physical abilities to self confidence -Women:higher importance of close family, helping others, emotional factors > physical activity
    • Determinants of attraction - Festinger, Schacter & Back (1950): housing complex for students, 65% same building, 41% next door, 10x as many relationships in same building, physical & functional distance
    • Propinquity: the more we see & interact with people the more likely they are to become our friends
    • Reciprocal Liking: knowing someone fuels our attraction to them
      • Curits & Miller (1986): paired two students who have never met and told one they were liked by the other - they acted more agreeably
      • Similarity: we seek others on basis of similarity not attractiveness, if we think others like us we will make the first move -Similarity is strong predictor of marital quality
        • Type depends on stage of relationship: Acquaintances - broadly similar attitudes, Later - similar in how you view others - Close friends - similar understanding of world
        • Similarity to ideal self: want our partner to be similar on valued qualities but not better, more attracted if qualities match ideal self -As partner becomes more like IS we have increased attraction, better than IS = decreased attraction
        • Similarity & Difference: 30% what attracted is what broke up, fatal attraction when attracted by: different from you, unique /extreme quality
          • Women marry up, men marry down, both men and women more positive when wives more attractive, both negative when husband more attractive
    • Attraction : Relationships -Accounts of love: reciprocal liking & attractiveness high, similarity & propinquity low
      • Accounts of friendship: reciprocol liking & attractiveness high, similarity & propinquity low
    • Expression emotion: -Happiness is most attractive female emotion, least attractive male -Pride is most attractive male one of least attractive female -Shame more attractive to young women than men
      • Heterosexual women like in men: large eyes, large chin, big smile, prominent cheek bones -Heterosexual men like in women: large eyes, narrow cheeks, small chin, high eyebrows, large pupils, big smile
        • Wearing the colour red is attractive to both sexes despite being unaware of it
    • Physical appearance - Implications: Evolutionary: baby face = warm & nurturing, prominant cheekybones = sexual maturity
      • Attractive people assumed to possess: similar attitudes to self, good personality, successful marriage, high occupational status
      • Attractive people: more likely to receive help, have satisfying interpersonal relationships, better job chances & high salaries, less financial strain
      • Facial disfigurement: face is vital for verbal & non verbal communication, 8yrs have negative attributions, adolescent see as less attractive, women more likely to seek improvement
        • Implications: failure to match 'normal', withdrawn socially, loss of ability to blend into crowd
        • Why is appearance so influential? : Infants prefer attractive faces
        • Females aged 5+ have poor self image & body dissatisfaction, Adolescent women: less likely to have positive body image, less satisfaction with weight - Jacob Brimberg (1997) looked at female diary entries over 150yrs, Used to contain: interests, character, society, Now contains: weight, shape, appearance
    • Female body shape: 1985 (UK 12) now (UK 4-6) -Black women more satisfied with bodies than white but still more concerned than black men - Cash (2002): Lesbians less interested in weight & dieting, higher self esteem than heterosexual women but still more concerns than men
      • Male body shape: in the last 20 years - body dissatisfaction, preoccupation with weight, concern over attractiveness & weight -Gay men: elevated importance of physical appearance, greater dissatisfaction & discrepancy of self & ideal
    • Bosdy size: obese stigmatised & pu nished - Self presentation: 11-18yrs female importance in appearance, young display themselves through tight revealing clothing where as older women cover up
      • Selective attention for unattractive body part plays role in body dissatisfaction, changing attention to body may improve satisfaction


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