Attraction

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  • Attraction
    • Factors that lead to Attraction
      • 1) Proximity
        • Interaction
          • The greater the interaction, the greater the attraction
            • Newcomb (1961)
          • Uni girls were given ambiguous info about 2 other girls, one whom they would meet.
            • When asked who they liked more, they said the girl they were set to meet
            • Berscheid et al (1967)
        • Mere Exposure
          • The greater the exposure, the greater the fondness
          • Michigan students were showed made up 'turkish' words. They preferred the ones that came up most frequently
            • The same occured for men's faces and chinese-like characters
            • Zajonc (1970)
        • Proximity increases liking. The closer you are the closer you get emotionally
        • A survey of ppl in long term relationshops was conducted, 38% met at school or work ofr places near their home
        • Pew (2006)
      • 2) Physical Attractivenes
        • Matching Hypothesis
          • Murstein (1986)
          • States that more similarly matched attractiveness (& other traits) ppts had longer lasting relationships
          • A 'Get acquianted'dance study randomly paired ppts but told they had been matched
            • Physical attractiveness was the largest factor contributing to making a second date
            • Walster et al (1966)
        • Attractivenes Stereotype
          • People automatically expect attractive people to also be smart & successful
          • British children's IQs were measured at 7, 11 + 16. There was a correlation between IQ & attractiveness
            • Kanazawa (20110
        • Attractiveness is a moderately good indication of popularity
          • 123 couples were rated for attractiveness by males & females
          • Correlations tended to be higher the more serious the relationship was eg. .18 for casual, .63 for married
          • White (1980)
      • 3) Similarity vs. Complimentary
        • Similar attitudes bring couples closer together
        • 291 married couples were surveyed and found to be more 'similar' than 'random' couples
        • But marital satisfaction was associated with similar personalities rather than attitudes
        • Luo + Klohnen (2005)
        • Desire for similarity trumps desire for attractiveness
      • 4) Reciprocal affection
        • Attribution
          • If praise clearly violated what we know, we may lose respect for person bestowing it
            • Shrauger (1975)
        • Loss-gain Hypothesis
          • A study was conducted 'allowing' women to overheard evaluations about themselves.
          • They either heard +/-,+ > - or - > +.
          • The ones that best liked the evaluators were the ones that changed from negative to positive evaluations
          • Aronson + Linder (1975)
        • Discovering that someone appealing really likes you awakens romantic feelings for that person
          • Aron et al (1989)
        • Students liked another student who said 8 good things about them more than a student who said 7 good things and 1 bad one
          • We are sensitive to negative feedback
          • Berscheid et al (1969)
    • Factors that enable/ influence relationships
      • Attachment Style
        • The Strange Situation
          • Mary Ainsworth (1969)
          • Used to investigate attachment types
        • The Love Quiz
          • Hazan + Shaver (1987)
          • Longitudinal study on relationships. Found a correlation between attachment style and romantic love style
          • Secure: Found it easy to get closeDidnt worry about being abandonedHad satisfying, enduring relationships
          • Avoidant: Less investedOne night standsFearful + dismissive
          • Resistant: Less trustingPossessive + jealousEmotional + angry
      • Equity
        • Walster et al (1978)
        • A partner expects out what they put into a relationship
        • This is super important in LTRs
        • Equitable partners were more content, happy. Inequity results in distress
        • Equity is different between cultures
      • Self Disclosure
        • We like people we can disclose and feel disclosed to
        • Paired ppts, given 36 questions gradually increasing in intimacy.
        • Those who got intimate felt a lot closer to that person
        • Aron + Aron (1997)
    • Aristotle called humans 'social animals'
    • Humans have a need to belong, motivation to connect with others in close relationships to prevent ostracism which is literally painful
    • Myers (2013)

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