Attlee Govt. 1945 - 1951

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  • Created by: RahmaM
  • Created on: 31-03-15 10:42
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  • Attlee Govt. 1945 - 1951
    • Reasons for Conservative Losing
      • Out of touch
      • Gestapo speech
      • Link to the 30s
      • Link to appeasement and failure for land fit for heroes
      • POOR election campaign based on Churchill
    • Reasons for Labour win
      • More effective campaign. Better policies
      • Labour represented progressive ZEITGEIST
      • Leading Labour figures gained valuable experience during coalition
      • Imbalance in electoral system
    • GOVT. KEY PLAYERS
      • Aneurin "Nye" Bevan
        • Minister of Health 1945 - 1951
          • Established National Health Service
            • Believed in complete free universal health care
            • Resigned due to prescription charges
        • Coal Miner background
        • Radical left, more on the side of socialism
      • Ernest Bevin
        • Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
        • Trade Union leader
        • Opposed communism, creation of NATO
        • Marshall Plan
        • Worked with Attlee on Atomic Bomb
        • Advocated creation of United Nations
      • Sir Stafford Cripps
        • 1945 - 1947 President of Board of Trade
        • 1947 - 1950 Chancellor of Exchequer
          • Responsible for laying foundation of Britain's post war prosperity
          • Increased taxes, forced reduction in consumption in effort to boost exports
          • Stabilise the ponund
      • Hugh Dalton
        • Chancellor of the Exchequer 1945 - 1947
          • Leaked information to press forced to resign
        • Highly skilled economist
      • Herbert Morrison
        • Home Secretary, Foreign Secretary
        • Organised victorious campagin
    • BEVERIDGE REPORT 1942
      • WANT / POVERTY
        • National Insurance 1946
        • National Assistance Act 1948
        • Family Allowance Act 1945
      • SQUALOR / POOR HOUSING
      • IGNORANCE / LACK OF EDUCATION
        • Butler Act 1944
      • DISEASE / ILLNESS
        • National Health Service 1946
      • IDLENESS / UNEMPLOYMENT
        • National Insurance 1946
        • National Assistance 1948
    • WELFARE STATE
      • National Insurance 1946
        • Universal and compulsory government - Employer - Employee contirbutions
      • Industrial Relations Act
        • Cover for accidents at work
      • National Health Service 1946
        • Universal health care, inc  dentist and optical care
        • Resistance from Medical professionals Came into effect 1948
        • Opinion poll - March 1948 over 40,000 voted against, 4,000 for it
        • COMPROMISE Agreed 85% working week with NHS, 15% private
        • 20% of National Insurance goes to NHS
      • Butler Act 1944
        • Free Education until age 14
      • Family Allowance Act 1945
        • Weekly payment of 5 shillings for every child after first. No means test
    • ECONOMY
      • FULL employment 1-2% unemployed
      • Keynesian Apporach
        • State intervention - Create jobs - lead to more money - Boost economy - When make profit - Reinvestment
          • Therefore  Borrowing to fund investment is fine
          • Short term deficit is ok
    • ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
      • WW2 - USA loans Debt 200% of GDP
      • AUSTERITY - Cuts in govt spending, increase in taxes
      • Keynes negotiate a loan of $6BN interest free, got $3.75 BN + Interest
      • Winter 47-48 Coldest Winter, Shortages of coal, transport issues
      • Balance of Payments - Exports decreased, imports increased £750 mn in 1945
        • By 1950 STRONGER, Full employment was maintained
          • 1950 - 1951 Increased military spending lead to splits in govt
            • Cripps stood down as Chancellor, Gaitskell replaced him
            • Prescription charges lead to Bevan resigning 1951
      • 60% drop in manufactured goods 50% drop in invisible exports
      • Increased military spending - cold war, overseas commitments

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