Attitudes to food

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  • Created by: 08rmorris
  • Created on: 12-05-15 17:42
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  • Attitudes towards food
    • Can be influenced by culture
      • Food restrictions differ between cultures
        • European: dont regard insects as a food source
      • Research evidence = link between culture and eating behaviour
        • However
          • The research evidence uses the natural method
            • Culture is a naturally occurring IV
              • Cause and effect cannot be established
    • Learnt through Classic and operant conditioning and social learning
      • Classical conditioning
        • Our PCG presents us with food -> association with appetite
          • Associate PCG with appetite and stimuli of food; taste, smell
            • PCG removed left with a set of stimuli associated with food and therefore appetite
      • Equally operant conditioning plays a role in establishing particular eating patterns
        • However
          • As consistent patterns in food attitudes are seen across cultures social learning must be an important factor
            • It is believed that vicarious reinforcement plays a role in establishing food taboos
      • the wide variety and flexibility of diet supports learning theory
        • The adoption of new food types within a culture such as olive oil
          • Result from exposure to new food types and is an example of complex processes of social influence
            • Learn our dietary patterns from family
              • Many depart from family norms
                • Reject foods eaten by the rest of the family
                  • Vegetarians
      • Important to understand role of cognition
        • Depressive states known to reduce appetite
          • Dieting involves an active choice
            • i.e. freewill to change our diet
          • The weakness of behavioural arguments is most apparent if other perspectives are ignore
            • A multi-perspective approach is needed to account for the complexity or the factors influencing eating behaviour
    • Media and social influence
      • Most prevalent in youth
        • cognitive incompetence
      • UK Gov. study (Food Standards Agency)
        • Nearly 900 children
          • 58% 7-16 had no serious food concerns
            • However
              • 42% concerned about food-related-lated diseases and illness
                • Bird flu (in the media at the time)
                • Fat
                • Sugar
                • Salt
          • Around 95% said that eating healthily was personally important
            • 82% agreed that eating healthily ewas personally important
              • 79% obtained healthy eating info from school
                • The vast majority aware 5 portions of fruit a day
                  • 31% obtained healthy eating info from family and friends
                  • Most trying to cut down down on sugary and fatty foods
              • 31% obtained healthy eating info from family and friends
      • A lot of advertisements for sugary and fatty snack are colourful and designed to appeal to children
        • vicarious reinforcement
    • There are biological limits to learning theory
      • it would be reductionist to ignore the biological under-pinnings of human behaviour
        • Carbohydrates are linked to increased mood
          • Increase in seretonin
            • Neurotransmitter associated with mood
              • Explain comfort-eating behaviour
        • Parker, Parker and Brotchie
          • Meta-analysis of a wide range of research into eating behaviour, chocolate and moos
            • Found no significant empirical evidence for chocolate enhancing mood
            • They concluded that concluded that chocolate provides emotional pleasure
              • Because it does not have a lasting effect on improving mood
                • This has been expanded
                  • it is believed that the pleasure is transient and caused mainly by the "melt-in-the-mouth" smoothness of chocolate
                    • This challenges the biochemical theory

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