Attitude & Attitude change

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  • Created on: 04-05-15 12:56
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  • Attitudes & Attitude change
    • Attitudes are: evaluations of people, objects & ideas
    • Made up of three parts that together form our evaluation of the 'attitude object': (1) An offective compenent, consisting of your emotional reactions toward the attitude object (2) A cognitive component, consisting of your thoughts & beliefs about the attitude object (3) A behavioral component, consisting of your actions or observable behavior toward the attitude object
    • Cognitivley based attitude: based on peoples beliefs about the properties of an attitude object
      • Affectively based object: based more on emotions & values than on an objective appraisal of pulses & minuses
        • Can come from: (1)Peoples values (2) Sensory reaction (3) Aestetic reaction (4) Conditioning
        • Classical conditioning: a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is accompanied by a neutral stimulus that elicits the emotional response by itself                  Operant conditioning: Behaviors we freely perform become more or less frequent depending on whether they are rewarded/ punished
        • (1) Do not result from a rational examination of the issues (2) Not governed by logic (3) Often linked to people's views
    • Behaviorally based attitude: based on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object
      • Daryl Ben (1972) Self Perception Theory: under certain circumstances people don't know how they feel until they see how they behave - Only when their initial attitude is weak & there are no other plausible explanations for their behaviour
    • Nisbett & Wilson (1977): Individual very limited awareness of their own thoughts & preferences - Greenwald & Banayl (1995): Limits in.. (1)Motivation to report attitude 92) Opportunity to report (3) Ability to report (4) Limits in their awareness
    • Implicit Association Test: Typically low correlation with explicit attitudes (because they measure different constructs), could be that implicit tasks are not measuring attitudes but associations
    • How do attitudes change? -Influenced by what other people say or do -Cognitive Dissonance -Counterattidunial adovacy
      • Persuasive communication & Attitude change - Yale attitude change approach (1953): (1)Cnetrally: motivated & have the ability to pay attention to the arguements in the communication (2) Peripherally|: no attention paid to the arguements but are swayed by the surface characteristics
    • Petty & Cacioppo (1986) - Central route to persuasion: people listen carefully & think about arguemnts when they have the ability & motivation to do so
      • More likely to pay attention to topic which is personally relevant
      • Need for cognition: personality variable reflecting how much people engage in & enjoy effortful cognitive activities
        • (1)High need for cognition = more likely to form thier attitudes by paying close attention 92) Low need= more likely to rely on peripheral cues
        • Attitudes based on careful analysis will be (1)more likely to maintain the attitude over time (2) more likely to behave consistently (3)more resistant to counter-persuasion


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