Social Influence

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  • Types of Conformity
    • Types of Conformity
      • Compliance
        • Individual agrees with group opinion and ideas, watching how they act in order to fit in however has no effect on underlying attitude
      • Internalisation
        • Individuals go along with the group due to an acceptance of their views. Once exposed,  encouraged to begin a validation process, examining their beliefs against their own. Leads to an acceptance of the groups view both publicly and privately
      • Identification
        • Sometimes a person accepts influence as they want to be part of or associated with a group. Has components of both internalisation and compliance. As someone accepts the attitudes they accept it completely (internalised) they do it because they want to be associated with a group
    • Reasons for Conformity
      • Normative
        • It's possible to go along with the majority without accepting their point of view. Usually referred to as 'compliance'
          • Humans have innate need for social companionship and such have innate fear of rejection and this forms the basis for normative social influence e.g. to gain acceptance and approval
            • Important condition of normative influence is individual must believe they are under supervision by majority
              • Normative
                • It's possible to go along with the majority without accepting their point of view. Usually referred to as 'compliance'
                  • Humans have innate need for social companionship and such have innate fear of rejection and this forms the basis for normative social influence e.g. to gain acceptance and approval
                    • Important condition of normative influence is individual must believe they are under supervision by majority
        • Informational
          • Information Influence occurs when individual accepts information from others as evidence of reality
            • Humans try to 'check the facts' however when not possible rely on the opinions of others.
      • Evaluation
        • Difficulty differentiating between compliance and internalisation
          • P-Difficult to determine the relationships between internalisation and compliance due to how they're defined
            • E- Assumed that people complying in public but not in private are showing compliance but  It is possible that  acceptance occurs in public but hen dissipates later on  due to either forgetting information or receiving new information
              • E-Assumed that people who agrees with group in public and in private must be showing internalisation However also possible individual were only complying in public but comply in private due to self-perception
                • L-The explanations of conformity may lack internal validity due to the fact it may not be explaining what it think it is
                  • Difficulty differentiating between compliance and internalisation
                    • P-Difficult to determine the relationships between internalisation and compliance due to how they're defined
                      • E- Assumed that people complying in public but not in private are showing compliance but  It is possible that  acceptance occurs in public but hen dissipates later on  due to either forgetting information or receiving new information
                        • E-Assumed that people who agrees with group in public and in private must be showing internalisation However also possible individual were only complying in public but comply in private due to self-perception
                          • L-The explanations of conformity may lack internal validity due to the fact it may not be explaining what it think it is
          • Research support for normative influence
            • P - Research has shown relationship between normative beliefs and taking up smoking
              • E-Linkenbach and Perkins found adolescents exposed to the simple message that "majority of peers do not smoke" were less likely to start smoking
                • E- Schultz et al found that hotel guests exposed to the normative message that "75% of guests reuse their towels"  reduced their own towel usage by 25%
                  • L-Studies support the claim that people shape their behaviour to fit in with majority
                    • Research support for normative influence
                      • P - Research has shown relationship between normative beliefs and taking up smoking
                        • E-Linkenbach and Perkins found adolescents exposed to the simple message that "majority of peers do not smoke" were less likely to start smoking
                          • E- Schultz et al found that hotel guests exposed to the normative message that "75% of guests reuse their towels"  reduced their own towel usage by 25%
                            • L-Studies support the claim that people shape their behaviour to fit in with majority
            • Research support for informational influence
              • P-Exposure to others beliefs has an impact on social stereotypes
                • E-Wittenbrink and Henley found exposure to negative stereotypes of African Americans (that they were lead to believe were majority)  later developed negative beliefs about  a black individual .
                  • E-Also has influence of political opinion. Fien et al demonstrated showed how knowledge of others reactions to candidates performance changed their results drastically.
              • L-Evidence supports onformative influence as a reason of conformity
                • E-Also has influence of political opinion. Fien et al demonstrated showed how knowledge of others reactions to candidates performance changed their results drastically.

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