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  • Attachments
    • Evolutionary theory (bowlby's theory): 'you are born with innate abilities to attach'.  Inherited behaviours that promote reproduction will be naturally selected, innate mechanisms such as imprinting ensure you can survive. 3 important features of bowlby: infants and carers are programmed to become attached, attachment is biological taking place during a critical/sensitive period, attachment plays a role in later development (monotropy and continuity hypothesis).
      • social releasers such as crying and smiling encourage caregivers to look after the baby mothers have instincts  to ensure they protect you and they respond to crying and smiling, monotropy- a single 'special' attachment to one person (usually your primary caregiver), Continuity hypothesis: monotropy provides an infant with an internal working model (template) for all future relationships making attachments beneficial, critical/ sensitive period: up to 3 years old any disruption of attachment could result in poor development of child.
        • Evidence: Lorenz found that imprinting works with animals (he used geese). Schaffer and Emmersonfound that fewer than half of the infants they studied had a primary attachment to the person who usually fed, bathed or changed them, this supports the idea that most attachments are formed due to an innate ability to love. Harlow and Harlow used monkeys who had been isolated from their mothers and found that if someone who doesn't provide enough 'love' for the moneys isn't there then the monkeys will grow up being indifferent or abusive and also have difficulty with parenting or mating.
    • What is an attachment? Mary Ainesworth: 'an affectional tie that a person or animal  forms between themselves and another- a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time'. Schaffer: ' the close emotional bonds that form between two people characterised by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity (closeness)'.
    • Learning theory: Classical conditioning: 'learning through association' (pavlov's dogs) (refer to sheet), unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, Neutral stimulus, no conditioned response, conditioned stimulus, conditioned response. Operant conditioning: ' learning through rewards and punishments', when you do something good you are rewarded, bad is punished.
      • A02: + this is a plausible explanation of how babies become attached, we do learn through classical and operant conditioning, association and reinforcement, all research supporting the evolutionary theory goes against the learning theory, all research supporting the learning theory goes against the evolutionary theory.
    • The strange situation (Mary Ainesworth):  1. mother and child enter a room 2. mother and child alone 3. stranger enters room, talks with mother, approaches child 4. mother leaves stranger with child (stranger anxiety) 5. mother returns, stranger leaves (reunion behaviour) 6. mother leaves, child alone (separation anxiety) 7. stranger returns and tries to engage child (stranger anxiety) 8. mother returns, stranger leaves (reunion behaviour).
      • Findings: Attachment type B (secure attachment) has 66% of infants in, Type A (avoid ant) had 22% and Type C (resistant) had 12%. Type B: don't cry when caregiver leaves, have a willingness to explore and their reuinionbehaviour is high as is their separation anxiety. Type A: avoid social interaction and intimacy with others, high willingness to explore but low stranger anxiety, avoids contact with caregiver when returns and separation anxiety is indifferent. Type C: both seek and reject intimacy and social interaction, low willingness to explore, they seek and reject their caregiver when returning, high stranger anxiety and distressed separation anxiety.
        • A02: + Good and reliable method, easy to replicate (Do again), good predictive validity( likelihood of being able to predict what happens), used inter-rater reliability. - Lacks validity (is it measuring attachment or relationshipwith mother), ethics: stressful for infant and can cause them distress (especciallyin type C), in episode 6 , 20% reportedly cried desperately.
    • Cultural variations: Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg: a meta analysis conducted in 8 different countries, Type B was most common, Israel and Japan mostly type C with low levels of type A, Germany had type A. Grossman and Grossman found that german infants tended to be classified as insecurely attached rather than insecurely, in germany they keep interpersonal distance between children and adults which means parents can't engage in proximity seeking behaviour and appeared to be insecurely attached.
      • Disruption of attachment: Separation- to be physically apart from your main caregiver, for short or long periods of time. Robertson and Robertson found that it is potentially damaging to separate children from their parents but if the mother and child are separated but an emotional care is provided then deprivation could be avoided.
      • A02 Grossman and Grossman: the ** procedure might not be a valid procedure in this culture as it is not measuring what it intended to do, findings may be related more to the German cultural norm of keeping some interpersonal distance between parents and children.
    • Priavtisation: a complete lack of emotional care, no attachments have been formed. Hodges and Tizard investigated whether early maternal deprivation has a persisting effect or whether this can be modified by later experiences, they found that those adopted seemed to develop good family relationships, restored children seemed to experience some problems with family relationships.
      • Koluchova looked at twin boys who had been put into care after their mother died and found that when they was 20 they was above average intelligence and early damage had been repaired with no psychological problems.
      • Genie: was kept in virtul privatisation for most of her life and treated cruelly by her parents, the Riglers tried to get her back to normal but failed and this study shows that extreme privatisation has serious and lasting effects, on both emotional development (Attachment) and cognitive development (language) but that these effects can be rehearsed to some extent with high quality day care.
        • AO2: Hodges and Tizard: because this was longitudinal research people tended to drop out, this can severely effect the results of this and also those who were less well adjusted appeared to drop out, this makes the study a biased sample therefore the findings cannot be generalised.
          • AO2: Koluchova: The idea of privatisation is that no attachment is formed, but there was an attachment formed between the twins therefore they never actually experienced privatisation so this case can't be used for privatisation. Would have been easier for them to make attachments as they was younger when they was found and its easier when you're young, unlike genie who was old and found it difficult.
            • AO2:  Genie: we are unsure if Genie experienced any learning difficulties from birth, maybe brain damaged but curtis argued that she made good progress so could have been. Ethical issues: Rigler's triple role as therapist, scientist and foster parent made it unfair towards genie.
    • Institutionalisation: When children spend most of their childhood in hospital, orphanage or a children's home.Hodges and Tizard can be used here as the children involved grew up in care homes. Rutter carried out a longitudinal study and concluded that the earlier the attachment the less severe the consequence will be. Chisholm found that children adopt different attachment patterns which shows individual differences. Skeels and Dye  showed that children in orphanages did not improve dramatically in terms of intellectual development when they were given greater emotional attentions.
    • Day care:  A form of temporary care given  by a family member, not by someone who knows the child, normally outside the childs house. Social development: aspect of a childs growth concerned with development of sociability where the child learns to relate to others. Peer relations: how well children get on with other children, includes children's ability to make friends and play co operatively with other children.
      • Example of day care:  Childminding and nurserys.
        • A02 of day care: Peer relations: Belsky and Rovine found that infants who had been receiving 20 or more hours a week of day care were more likely to be insecurely attached  (A or C) compared with children at home. Clarke Stewart et al found that children who attended daycare could negotiate better with peers and Creps and Vernon- Feagans found that children who started daycare before 6 years old  were more sociable than those who started later.
          • A02: Agression: - Belsky says children who experienced day care show agression and are less obedient to authority figures, also field predicted this, NICHD did a longitudinal study until children were 5 and found that the longer they spent in day care the more they showed examples of frequent arguing, temper tantrums, lying, hitting and unpredictable conduct. Melhuish found high levels of day care in first 2 years may elevate the risk of developing anti social behaviour.
            • A02: findings: research carried out in different countries may have different amounts of funding for day care, the findings may not apply to day care in other countries where the day care is less well funded,  the childs experience will depend on the toe of day care, e,g nursery or child minder. the age of which the children start day care and the amount of hours they are there are important as is the quality of care, negative views often involve children who spend long periods each day in day care, individual differences and gender differences.
              • Implications of day care: Steele: found that young children in the strange situation have raised levels of the stress hormone cortisol (remains till 30 mins after reunion). Watamura et al found that cortisol levels of babies and toddlers gradually increased throughout the day when they're at nursery but not when they're at home, greatest increases were 2-3 years old and shy toddlers.
                • Reducing stress: key worker technique (Goldschmied and Jackson) significant adult for each child whilst in day care, can be used as an attachment figure when stressed-morning separation/ anxious return, emotionally available, provide warmth and security.
                  • High quality day care: Structural characteristics ( how the day care is organised) and process characteristics (the experiences of the child in the emotional environment provided). Mixed age group (Clarke Stewart et al) improves social development, well trained staff and low staff turnover.


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