Explanations of Attachment

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  • Created by: joe
  • Created on: 05-02-13 17:37
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  • Explanations of Attachment
    • Learning Theory
      • all behaviour is learned
      • Operant Conditioning
        • rewards/pleasant consquence
        • reinforcement
        • food is primary reinforcer
          • mother is secondary reinforcer
        • mother is secondary reinforcer
      • Classical conditioning
        • association
        • B4: UCS = UCR
          • Food = baby's pleasure
        • During: NS + UCS
          • Mum + Food
        • After: CS = CR
          • Mum = Baby's pleasure
      • Strengths
        • adequate explanation of how attachments form
          • not always food (i.e. attention or responsiveness)
      • Limitations
        • Harlow's monkeys (1959)
          • Food < Comfort
        • Schaffer and Emerson (1964) - Glasgow babies
          • Infant not always most attached to those who fed them
    • Bowlby's Theory
      • Critical Period
        • Attachment must be formed within a critical period (2.5 years)
          • Social
          • Emotional
          • Intellectual
          • Physical
      • Social Releases
        • features that unlock adults tendency to care for them
          • Physical (i.e. big eyes)
          • Behaviour (i.e. crying)
      • Internal Working Model
        • Future relationships based on this attachment
      • Monotropy
        • Only one very special attachment
          • Ever-present adult/mother substitute
      • Adaptive
        • Adaptive advantage - increase chances of survival
          • protect, feed and keep warm
      • Strengths
        • Imprinting on animals (i.e. Lorenz's goslings)
        • Supporting study: Hodges and Tizard found children with no attachment had difficulty with peers
        • Supporting study: Harlow's monkeys who didn't form an attachment became ill, couldn't stay with other monkeys and neglected their own infants
      • Limitations
        • Other attachments are important
          • i.e father and siblings
        • Study against: Fox (1977) found kids raised in Israeli Kibbutz raised communally were equally attached to both parents
        • Study against: Koluchova found twins raised in isolation formed secure attachments once rescued after "critical period"

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