Attachment

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  • Created by: P.Bradley
  • Created on: 19-04-15 10:00
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  • Attachment
    • Learning explanation
      • Classical Conditioning (Learning through association)
        • Stage one: pre conditioning
          • Uncondition stimulus (UCS)
        • Stage two: conditioning
          • The behaviour is presented repeatedly
        • Stage three: Post conditoning
          • The conitioned response becomes the conitioned stimulus
      • Operant Conditioning (Leaning through rewards)
        • The attahment is leant because of the feeling a child gets when their primary care giver feeds them
      • Evaluation
        • whilst attachment is learnt through reward, punishment should prevent the attachment; however children still attached to their parents even after punishment.
        • Harlow and Harlow: found tha that other factors such as comfort are more important when forming an attachment.
          • Harlow and Harlow Monkey study.
            • Monkey was on cloth mother longer than wired monkey. And when the baby monkey was scared it wen to cloth mother
    • Evolution (Bowlby's)
      • Critical Period: 2-3  years
        • If an attachment is not formed before this time, it may not ever form.
      • Innate programming
        • In order to develop it is imporant to show social releasers e.g. crying or smiling
      • Continuous in order to develop a strong internal working model
      • In order to create an attachment a child need a recipical attachment to a montoropy
      • Evaluation
        • Supported By Lorenz- Innate programming
        • Supported By Deprivation and Privation
        • Monotropy- is ethnocentric, doesnt support the idea of collective countries.
        • Could be suggested to be out dated as Father's are having a larger role or could be the monotropy
    • Types of attachment
      • Cross Cultral Variations
        • Ijendoorn and Kroonberg
          • Meta Analysis
        • Takahashi:
          • 70 middle class japanese women took part in the strange situation.
          • 68% secure, 32% resistent.
          • Attrition: some had to be withdrawn becaus of high levels of distress.
      • Ainsworth and Bell: Strange Situation
        • Procedure
          • 100 Middle class American mothers and their children.
          • Strange Situation
            • 1: Mother and child enter the room
            • 2: Mother and child explore the room
            • 3: Stranger enters the room and speaks to mother
            • 4: Mother Leaves the room and the stranger slowly goes over to the child
            • 5: The stranger interactes with the child
            • 6: Mother comes bac and stranger leaves
          • Controlled Obdervation
        • Findings:
          • Sure attachment: 65%
          • Insecure avoident: 22%
          • Insecure resistent: 12%
        • Evaluation
          • Ethnocentric
          • Ethical issues
            • Children show levels of distress
            • Children cant give informed concent or right to with draw
    • Disruption of attachment
      • Privation- unable to form an attachment.
        • Curtiss- genie case study.
          • most of her childhood locked up- no one spoke to her (no human contact)
          • she was found at the age of 13 and was not able to speak, and never recovered socially.
        • Hodges and Tizard
          • procedure
            • A longtidinal study on 65 children in care before 4 months
            • 24 adopted, 15 returned home and the rest still in care.
          • Findings
            • adopted children good attachment, bad social relationships
            • Still in care had good peer relations but didnt seek adult attention
            • Returned home- bad family atachment and bad peer.
      • Deprivation- disturbance of attachment.
        • Bowlby 44 thieves study.
          • Procedure:
            • interviewed 44 all been convicted for steasling.
            • he also interviewed their parents to find if there .
            • There was also a control group of 44 people who had not been convicted
          • Findings
            • 44 thieves
              • 14 affectionless psychopaths
                • 12 seperated from carer for more than 6 months
                • 2 not seperated
              • 30 non affectionless psychopaths
                • 5 seperated from carer
                • 25 not seperated from carer
            • 44 control
              • Non Affectinless psychopaths
                • 2 had been seperated from carer
                • 42 not seperated
    • Daycare
      • Aggression
        • NICHD (National Institute of Child Health)
          • Study of early care studies children of the age of 4 and a haldf years who were currently in kindergarten. with data being collected of behaviour they classed as aggressive or challenging behaviour.
          • They found that that the more time a child spent in day care the more aggresive the child would be between the age of 2 and 6
        • Sammons et al
          • Thye found that there was an increase level of anti-social behaviour in children who spent more than 20 hours a week in day care and even more noticible in those who spent over 40 hours
      • Peer relations and socialability
        • Harvey
          • Studied 6000 youngsters and found that children who had working mothers had not lasting effect. They had detected promblems at the age of 3/4 however by the age of 12 these weren't an issue.
          • He suggest that there are other factors in the early stages of life that are more important e.g. parent-child relationship, and quality of the daycare
        • EPPE project (Sylva et al)
          • Procedure
            • Studied 3000 children from 141 different pre-school centres. The sample inculdes urban, suburban and rural. and a rande of eithnic and economical back ground
            • there were 6 types of pre-school including play groupls, local authoriy or volounteer groups, day nurseries, pivate nurseries, nursery school and classes and centres combinging care and education.
            • children were assesed individually at the age of 3/4. the Assessement incuded a profile of their interlectuall and social development using standardized assement
            • The chrilren were then assessed at primary school age comapring the children and taking into account their background
    • application of research to childcare practices
      • Hospital
        • Robertson and Bowbly's research on deprivation has changed goverment policy and. Childrens wards now allow parents to stay over night with children
      • Adoption
        • Bowlyby's critical period and Rutter's research on Romanian orphand has effected adoption as now most adoptions happen in the first week after they are born
        • Singer Et al found that now days adoptive mothers are just as securely attached than biolgical mothers
      • Daycare
        • Sure Start
          • Sure start local proggrammes target children under the age of 4 and their families in over 500 geographic area through out England. The aim of SSLPs is to enhance the life chances of young children by enhancing existing services for children and families and, whenever necessary, developing new ones.
          • Inspired by Fields finding that children who spent time in day care had more firends and participate in extra cricular activities.

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