ATTACHMENT SUMMARISED

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  • Created on: 17-05-19 18:32
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  • ATTACHMENT
    • Caregiver-infant interactions
      • KEY STUDY:MELTZOFF AND MOORE 1977
        • AIMS: To prove that babies imitating the caregiver was intentional
        • PROCEDURE: They selected four stimuli (three faces ad one hand gesture and observed the behavior f infants in response and an observer watches videotapes of the infants behaviour, each observer noted all tongue protrusions and head movements in categories.
          • The four stimuli were; mouth opening, termination of mouth opening, tongue protrusion and termination of tongue protrusion
        • FINDINGS: Observer scored tapes twice so that both inter observer reliability could be calculated. All scores were greater than 92%.
      • Attachment is a close two way emotional bond between two individuals, they both see each other as essential for their emotional security.
      • Non-verbal
      • Reciprocity- Infants co-ordinate their actions with the caregiver, from birth babies move in rhythm when interacting with an adult
      • Interactional synchrony- Infants move their bodies in rhythm with their caregiver to create a kind of turn taking two way vocal conversation
      • Evaluation
        • Supported by Meltzof and Moore
          • Failure to replicate, KOEPKE ET AL 1983 and many other studies have failed to replicate these results
        • PIAGET 1962, said that true imitation was only able to happen at the end of the first year, anything before this is just response training
    • Stages of attachment
      • KEY STUDY: SCHAFFER AND EMERSON 1964
        • AIM: To investigate stranger anxiety and specific attachment
        • PROCEDURE: 60 infants from working class homes ranging from the ages of 5-23 weeks studied until they were one years old. Visited every four weeks. The mother reported their infants response to seperation every seven days such as being left in a room on their own. The mother describes the intensity of the protest by their infant.
      • STAGE 1- INDISCRIMINATE: Up to three months old. Produce a similar response to all objects. Towards the end of this stage, babies are showing a greater preference for social stimuli
      • STAGE 2- BEGINNINGS: Around the age of four months. Prefer human company. Can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people.
      • STAGE 3-DISCRIMINATE: Aged seven months, distinctly different protest when a particular person puts them down.
      • STAGE 4- MULTIPLE: Occurs very soon after the main attachment is formed, wider circle of multiple attachments depending on how consistent the relationships are.
      • ROLE OF FATHER Less likely to be the primary attachment figure than mother, not due to the amount of time spent but possibly that men are not psychologically equipped to form an intense attachment or lack emotional sensitivity.
      • Evaluation
        • Supporting study Schaffer and Emerson 1964
        • Unreliable data: it is based on a self report therefore could be subject to social desireablilty bias.
        • Cultural differences: Multiple attachment occurs much earlier in other more collectivist cultures.
    • Animal studies of attachment
      • KEY STUDY: LORENZ 1935
        • PROCEDURE: Took a group of gosling eggs and divided them into two groups, one group was left with the natural mother and the others were put in an incubator, when the incubated eggs hatched the first thing they saw was Lorenz and they started to follow him even when put back with their natural mother and other group f goslings
        • FINDINGS: One group followed the natural mother and the other group followed Lorenz, he noted that the process of imprinting must take place in the animals critical period.
        • Evaluation
          • Supporting study, GUITON 1966, was able to have chicks become attached to a yellow glove.
          • Imprinting is found to be irreversible therefore breaks ethical guidelines as lasting effects impact mate preferences.
      • KEY STUDY: HARLOW 1959
        • PROCEDURE: Created two wire monkeys (mothers) each with a different head, one was covered in a soft cloth and the other equipped with food. They measured how much time each monkey spent with the mother.
        • FINDINGS: All eight monkeys spent most of their time with the cloth covered mother and only spent a short amount of time with the mother with the milk then returned to the soft mother and when frightened they held onto the mother with the cloth as well as keeping a foot on it whilst playing for reassurance.
        • Evaluation
          • Cofounding variable, the mother monkeys each had different heads, the cloth mother having a more attractive head than the one with food, giving an alternative explanation for the received results.
          • Ethics: The study had lasting effects on the monkeys as they all developed abnormally and reacted abnormally when approached by other monkeys
          • Significant effect in the way in which we understand attachment
    • Explanations for attachment
      • Learning theory
        • Classical conditioning: The process begins with an innate stimulus response, this in attachment is food. The infants mother becomes associated with being fed.
        • Operant conditioning: When an animal is in discomfort this creates the drive to reduce the discomfort, when an infant is fed this reduces the discomfort of hunger
        • SLT: Modelling could be an explanation for attachment behaviours, children observes parents affectionate behaviours and imitates them.
        • Evaluation
          • Largely based n non-human studies therefore we cannot generalise the results. They lack validity as they are over simplified versions of human behaviour
          • Contradicted by Harlow's study which suggests that comfort is more important than food, this idea is supported by Schaffer and Emerson.
      • Bowlby's Monotropic theory
        • Monotropy-The idea that the one relationship that the infant has with their primary attachment figure is one of significance in emotional development
        • Critical period- A biologically determined period of time during which certain characteristics can develop, outside this time window such development is not possible.
          • 3-6 months
        • Attachments form because they serve an important survival function
        • Social releasers are important to ensure that attachment develops between infant and parent e.g. smiling and having big eyes.
        • Continuity hypothesis- The idea that emotionally secure infants go on to be more emotionally secure, trusting and socially confident adults.
        • Evaluation
          • SROUFE ET AL 2005 found support for the continuity hypothesis by carrying out a parent and child study in Minnesota, he found continuity between early attachment and later emotional and social behaviour
          • RUTTER ET AL, found it was more of a sensitive period rather than critical, it is not impossible for attachments to form after 3-6months although it is less likely.
          • KAGEN 1984 offers an alternative explanation known as the temperament hypothesis. Infants who have an easy temperament are more likely to become stronger attached because its easier to spent time with them and interact.
    • Types of attachment
      • Insecure-avoidant: Tend to avoid social interaction and intimacy with others
      • Insecure-resistant: Both seek and reject intimacy and social interaction.
      • Secure attachment: Strong and contented attachment of an infant to their caregiver which develops due to sesitive responding by the caregiver to the infants needs
      • KEY STUDY: MARY AINSWORTH- The Strange Situation
        • Aim: To see how infants aged 9-18months behave under mild stress
        • Procedure: Eight episodes including seperation from caregiver, reunion with caregiver, response to a stranger and encurage exploration in new environment
        • Findings: Secure attached have more harmonious and cooperative behaviour with caregiver, Insecure avoidant tend to avoid social interaction, insecure resistant seeks and resists intimacy
      • Evaluation
        • AINSWORTH'S study has high inter-rater reliability of 94% agreement.
        • The study overlook a fourth type of attachment, disorganised attachment as some infants don't have a consistent type of attachment
        • Low internal validity as the study was just done with mothers, children react differently depending on which parent they are with.
    • Cultural variations
      • KEY STUDY: VAN LJZENDOORN AND KROONENBURG 1988
        • Procedure: Meta analysis of 32 studies of 2000 strange situation classifications in eight different countries
        • FINDINGS: Differences between cultures were small, secure attachment was the most common in all countries, suggesting attachment is innate and biological
      • Culture is an issue of central importance in Bowlby's theory becuase it suggests that attachment is innate.
      • If such attachments are formed in some cultures but not in others then this suggests that attachment is not biologically determined
      • Evaluation
        • Cross cultural research, e.g. Japanese children may appear to have insecure attachment according to western criteria whereby Japanese criteia they are securely attached
        • ROTHBAUM ET AL: The theory is rooted in American culture so isnt relevant to any other cultures
        • File drawer effect, bias in selection of the studies used for the meta analysis
    • Bowlby's theory of Maternal Deprivation
      • Bowlby 1944: 44 juvenile thieves
        • PROCEDURE: He analysed case histories of a number of his patients all of which were maladjusted emotionally, he studied 88 of these, 44 who had been caught stealing and the other 44 as a control group.
          • He suggested some of these thieves were affectionless psychopaths that lacked signs of remorse or shame
        • FINDINGS: Individuals diagnosed as affectionless thieves had experienced frequent early separations from their mothers (12/14) suggesting that early separation is linked to a.p
      • An early theory of Bowlby's focusing on the consequences off deprivation of maternal care on an infant.
        • Long term consequences of this is emotional maladjustment
      • A mothers love in infancy is as important for mental health as vitamins and minerals for physical health.
      • Evaluation
        • Real world application: Enormous impact on post war thinking about child rearing and how children are looked after in hospitals.
        • Individual differences: Not all children are affected by emotional disruption in the same way- BARRETT 1997
        • Criticised by RUTTER 1981 who argued that it wasn't clear whether the attachment bond had been broken or if it had just never formed in the first place.
    • Institutionalisation
      • KEY STUDY: RUTTER AND BARKE 2010
        • PROCEDURE: Study of 165 Romanian orphan children suffering the effects of institutionalisation
        • FINDINGS: Were all smaller, weighed less and classified as 'mentally retarded' lagging behind their British counterparts on all measures
      • The effect of institutional care such as time spent in an orphanage and how this can effect the development socially, mentally and physically on children.
      • Evaluation
        • Real life application- The outcome of research into institutionalisation is to apply understanding to improving the lives of children, helping the way in which children are looked after in hospitals.
        • Individual differences- Some research suggests that individuals that don't form a primary attachment within the sensitive period cannot recover but this isn't true for all children as some that experience institutions are less effected.
        • Deprivation is only one factor: The Romanian orphans were also subject to bad living conditions which impacted their health and a lack of cognitive stimulation which is not the same for all institutions.
    • Early attachment
      • KEY STUDY: HAZEN AND SHAVER 1987
        • PROCEDURE: Placed love quiz in the New Paper asking questions about current attachment experiences and attachment history. Analysed 620 responses from a mixture of men and women
        • FINDINGS: Found that 56% were securely attached, 25% were insecure avoidant and 19% were insecure resistant.

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