attachment- stages, role of the father, infant-caregiver interaction

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  • Attatchment
    • caregiver infant interactions
      • Interactional synchrony
      • reciprocity
      • research into caregiver interactions can be criticised for lack of ecological validity
        • researcher bias, researcher may only choose findings that support his hypothesis
        • but it has practical applications as it can be used to encourage responsive caregivers to minimise the problems in later life
        • has high control over extraneous variables bc of lab setting
    • stages of attachment and multiple
      • pre attachment (o-3 months) indiscriminate attachment (3-7/8 months) discriminate (7//8 months onwards) multiple attachments (9 months onwards)
      • aim: to investigate the stages/multiple attachments. sample: 60 working class babies and their mothers from Glasgow.
        • method: longitudinal. Procedure: babies were studied each month for the first year and then again at 18 months. interviews and questionnaires and observations were used
          • attachment  was measured by separation anxiety and stranger anxiety
        • findings: 6-8 months had separation anxiety towards mother. 8-9 months had stranger anxiety.
          • by 10 months 80% had a specific attachment and 30% had multiple attachments
      • high ecological validity, social desirability, longitudinal, culture bias
    • role of the father
      • Grossman(good times) said that father's are for play and stimulation:
        • aim: to investigate parental behaviour and the quality of attachment. method: longitudinal. procedure: observed both parents' behaviour and interaction
        • findings: the attachment with the mother and not the father was related to the children's attachment but a father's play was important to the quality of the child's attachments
          • father's are more for play and stimulation than nurture
    • role of the father contradictory research for grossman
      • to investigate whether or not fathers can be primary caregivers.
        • field filmed 4 month old babies with primary caregiver fathers and mothers and secondary caregiver fathers.
          • he found that like primary caregiver mothers, primary giver fathers spent more time smiling, imitating and holding the infant in comparison to secondary caregiver fathers.
            • fathers can be nurturing and can be the primary caregivers. it depends on the level of responsiveness not the gender.

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