Attachment mind map

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Kayliss71
  • Created on: 21-05-18 20:22
View mindmap
  • Attachment
    • Caregiver-infant interactions in humans
      • Sensitive responsiveness- the caregiver responds appropriately to signals from the infant
      • Imitation- the infant copies the caregivers actions and behaviours
      • Interactional synchrony- infants react in time with the caregivers speech resulting in a 'conversation dance'
      • Reciprocity- interaction flows back and forth between the caregiver and infant
      • Motherese- the slow, high pitched way of speaking to infants
    • Schaffer's stages of attachment
      • 1) the pre attachment stage - 0-3 months the baby learns to separate people from objects but have no preference as to who cares for it
      • 2) indiscriminate attachment phase- 6 weeks - 7 months infant starts to recognise people. smiling at people they know more
      • 3) the discriminate attachment phase - 7-11 months infant can form a strong attachment with an individual. show separation anxiety, joy on arrival and may avoid strangers
      • 4) multiple attachment phase- 9 months + infant can form attachments with several people, some attachments may be stronger and have different functions
    • Animal studies of attachment
      • Harlow
        • Aimed to find out if baby monkeys would prefer a source of food or a source of comfort
        • Separated from mother at birth and grown in isolation. Had two surrogate mothers; a wire mesh mother with a food source and a soft mother with no food
        • Monkey spent most of their time clinging to soft mothers
        • As the monkeys grew up they showed signs of social and emotional disturbance. Female monkeys were bad mothers who were often violent towards their offspring
      • Lorenz
        • Studied imprinting on geese
        • Raised half the clutch of geese himself and left the other half to the mother
        • When putting both groups together the ones he raised went to him and the others went to the mother
        • After further experiments he determined that imprint most likely occurred between 13-16 hours after hatching (critical period)
        • He also noted that after this critical period it was too late for the young birds to imprint
    • Learning theory explanation
      • Classical conditioning
        • Getting food naturally gives the baby pleasure
        • The baby's desire for food is fulfilled whenever the mother feeds It
        • Eventually baby associates mother with food and attaches to her even in situations where food is not required/given
        • Cupboard love theory
      • Operant conditioning
        • Babies feel discomfort when they are hungry
        • Babies discover that when they cry their mothers will come and feed them so the discomfort is removed
          • Negative reinforcement
    • Bowlby's monotropic theory
      • Social releasers -innate, infant social behaviours that stimulate adult interaction and caregiving
      • Attachment can be explained by evolution - we have evolved a biological need to attach to our main caregiver
        • Social releasers -innate, infant social behaviours that stimulate adult interaction and caregiving
      • We create one special attachment, a strong attachment provides a safe base and has survival value
      • We create an internal working model of attachment which acts as a template for future relationships. it is working as it changes over time. the primary caregiver provides foundations for future relationships - continuity hypothesis
      • There is a critical period for attachment to develop otherwise you may never do so. if doesn't occur or is broken it may cause serious psychological harm to child
    • Critical period and internal working model
      • There is a critical period for attachment to develop otherwise you may never do so. if doesn't occur or is broken it may cause serious psychological harm to child
      • We create an internal working model of attachment which acts as a template for future relationships. it is working as it changes over time. the primary caregiver provides foundations for future relationships - continuity hypothesis
    • Strange situition
      • Conducted by Ainsworth and is considered the paradigm for conducting attachment types procedures
      • Securely attached - infants are keen to explore, have high stranger anxiety but are easy to console and are enthusiastic at the return of their caregiver. (type B)
      • Cultural variations
        • Van ijzendoorn and kroonenberg. Did a meta analysis on strange situation in several countries
        • Germany :  35% type A , 57% type B,    8% type C      ( Highest type A)
        • Israel: 7% type A, 64% type B, 29% type C           (  country with highest Type C )
        • Britain : type A 22%, type B 75%, type C 3% ( highest type B)
        • Intra-cultural differences in attachment types are often greater than inter-cultural differences
          • Intra= same culture    Inter= between cultures
      • Insecure avoidant- infants are willing to explore, have low stranger anxiety, are unconcerned by separation and avoid contact when caregiver returns ( type A)
      • Insecure resistant- infants are unwilling to explore, have high stranger anxiety and high separation anxiety. they seek and reject contact on return (type C)
    • Maternal deprivation theory (Bowlby)
      • Deprivation from the main carer during the critical period will have harmful effects on the child
      • 44 thieves study (Bowlby)
        • case study on 44 juvenile thieves and 44 emotionally disturbed children who didn't steal (control group)
        • 17 of the thieves had experienced frequent separations from their mothers before the age of 2
        • 12 of the thieves were diagnosed as 'affectionless psychopaths'
          • 12/14 had experienced long term separation from their mothers
        • 12/14 had experienced long term separation from their mothers
      • Long term effects of deprivation can include separation anxiety and future relationships may be affected by this emotional insecurity
      • Robertson and Robertson conducted a study providing evidence for Bowlbys theory
        • Protest, despair and detachment
        • Naturalistic observation
    • Institutionalisation
      • Privation - where the attachment is never formed
      • Deprivation- the attachment is formed and then broken
      • Long term effects
        • Affectionless psychopathy
        • Anaclitic depression - involving appetite loss, insomnia, and impaired social and intellectual development
        • Deprivation dwarfism- infants are physically under developed due to emotional deprivation
        • Delinquency
        • Reduced intelligence
      • Romanian orphans study (Rutter)
        • 111 Romanian infants were adopted by British families were compared to 52 UK adoptees and were followed over a prolonged period
        • The children younger than 6 months from Romania had the same level of emotional development as the UK kids
        • Romanian orphans adopted after 6 months showed signs of insecure attachments and social problems.The UK kids didn't
    • The influence of early attachment on adult relationships
      • The internal working model of a child is used to explain adult relationships
      • Some studies suggest that those who experience privation go on to have difficulties caring for their own children

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Attachment resources »