Attachment 2 (pg84 onwards)

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  • Created on: 20-08-20 12:15
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  • Attachment 2
    • Bowlby's Monotropic Theory
      • Rejects the Learning Theory
        • Uses Harlow/ Lorenz's studies to focus on innate, evolutionary aspect: imprinting and critical period are innate mechanisms to keep young animals safe, by ensuring they stay close to adult caregivers.
      • Monotropy
        • Focus on a child's ONE particular attachment
        • Elements: - Law of continuity (of care) - Law of accumulated separation
      • Internal Working Model
        • When the child forms a mental representation of their primary attachment figure = serves as a model for what other attachments and relationships are like
        • Means expectations of other relationships are formed based on this attachment
          • Affects child's ability to later parent themselves, when they have children
    • The Strange Situation. Ainsworth 1969
      • Measured the security of an attachment between mother and infant
        • Secure: proximity- seeking and secure-base bhv. 60-75% British infants
          • Insecure Avoidant: Explores freely but doesn't seek proximity or secure-base. Little separation of stranger anxiety. 20-25% of British infants.
            • Insecure Resistant: Seek greater proximity than others and so explore less. High levels of separation and stranger anxiety, but resistant to comfort when reunited with mother. 3% of British infants.
      • Procedure measured based on:
        • Proximity-seeking
        • Exploration
        • Secure-base bhv
        • Stranger Anxiety
        • Separation Anxiety
        • Response to reunion
    • Cultural Variations
      • Ijzendoorn & Kroonberg 1988
        • Studied types of attachments in different countries and also in different regions of different countries to gather data on attachment types in different cultures.
          • 32 Strange Situation studies found and used. From 8 different countries- 15 were in USA.
            • In all countries, secure attachment was most common, but varied from 75% in Britain, to 50% in China.
            • The differences in regions were greater than the differences between countries.
    • Bowlby's Theory of Maternal Deprivation
      • Separation VS Deprivation
        • Separation = Child is not in the presence of the primary attachment figure
        • Deprivation = When separation becomes a problem because the child is deprived of emotional care
          • Deprivation can still occur if the mother is preset, if she suffers from absenteeism or depression, for example
            • Extended separation is usually the cause of deprivation.
              • This may cause delayed or nill intellectual and emotional development
            • The 2&1/2 year critical period is also important here
      • Continuous, consistent care is needed from a mother- figure for normal psychological development
    • Romanian Orphan Studies. Rutter et al. 2011
      • Opportunity arose from 165 1990's Romanian children who were institutionalised and cared for by up to 50 workers in one day and so had no time to form an attachment to one or a select few
        • All those used in the 2011 study had been adopted by British parents
          • They were studied at 4,6,11,15 and 22-25 years
        • Intellectual and emotional development was measured. If the child had been adopted before age 6 months, the consequences were almost unnoticeable by 22-25 years, compared to those adopted above the age of 6 months.
          • Disinhibited attachment was common in those institutionalised for more than 6 months after birth
    • Later relationships
      • Internal Working Model forms the basis for future attachments and relationships
        • IWM affects romantic and parental relationships and attachments in the infant's future.


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