WJEC biology ATP

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  • ATP
    • makes energy available when it is needed
    • full name: Adenosine Triphosphate
    • synthesised in mitochondria
      • broken down when energy is needed - eg in muscle contraction
    • a nucleotide
      • contains:    Base- adenine   Sugar- ribose       three phosphate groups
        • full name: Adenosine Triphosphate
        • adenosine= adenine + ribose           so ATP= adenine +  ribose + 3 phosphate groups
    • ATP and Energy
      • when Energy is needed
        • 1. ATPase hydrolysis bond between 2nd & 3rd phosphate groups
          • 2. 3rd phosphate group removed
            • 3. ATP hydrolysed into Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
              • and an inorganic phosphate ion  WIITH RELEASE OF CHEMICAL ENERGY
                • a reaction that releases energy is an   EXERGONIC REACTION
                  • it is a reversible reaction
                    • ADP and an inorganic phosphate ion can combine in CONDENSATION REACTION
                      • this requires ENERGY INPUT
                        • Is an ENDERGONIC REACTION
                          • addition of phosphate ion to ADP is called PHOSPHORYLATION
      • energy transfers are inefficient and energy is lost as heat
        • if there is a large incease in temp - cells would be destroyed
          • energy is released gradually in respiration, producing ATP
    • A supplier of energy
      • Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is single reaction
        • energy released immediately
        • takes longer for glucose
      • only one enzyme needed to release energy from ATP
        • many needed to release energy from glucose
      • energy released in small amounts, when and where it is needed
        • energy from glucose is released all at once
      • A common source of Energy for many chemical reactions - increasing efficiency and control by cell
    • roles of ATP
      • Metabolic processes
        • build large, complex molecules from smaller, simpler ones
          • eg DNA synthesis from nuckeotides
      • Active Transport
        • to change shape of carrier proteins
        • alow molecules or ions to be moved AGAINST concentration gradient
      • Movement
        • Muscle contraction
      • Nerve transmission
        • Na-K pumps actively transports Na and K ions across AXON membrane
      • Secretion
        • transport and package secretory poducts into vesicles in cells


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