Atoms and sub-atomic particles

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  • Atoms, elements and compounds
    • Mixtures can be separated into simpler substances with fewer parts.
    • A compound can be broken down into simpler compounds or its elements
    • Elements are substances that cannot be broken down by chemical reactions into simper substances.
    • Symbols are not always the letters of the name of the element e.g sodium has the symbol Na
    • Chemists use models to represent the 3D arrangements of atoms. Coloured spheres represent atoms
    • Sub-atomic particles
      • Sub-atomic particles have both a charge and a mass
      • You can workout the mass of an atom by adding together the numbers of protons and neutrons
      • Since an atom has an equal numbers of protons and electrons, the charges cancel out
      • Neutrons have no charge and are neutral
      • The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atoms is its mass number
      • The electronic configuration of an atom gives the number of its electrons and the arrangement of the shells
      • You can show electrons as dots or crosses. Each shell can had a limited number of electrons
      • Elements with the same number of outer electron have similar chemical properties


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