atoms and reactions

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  • atoms and reactions
    • types of bonding
      • covalent= between a metal and a non metal (give/ take electrons)
      • metallic bonding= between metal and a metal (positive protons surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons)
      • ionic= two non metals (they share electrons)
    • first ionisation energy the amount of energy need to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseouse atoms to form one mole of gashouse 1 + ions
    • quantum shells
    • orbitals
      • each orbital holds 2 e- that have opposite spin on each other causing minimal repulsion and are always in pairs
      • s orbitals= can hold a max of 2 e-, one in every quantum shell, spherical in shape
      • P orbitals= holds max 2 e-, 3 orbitals all equal, shaped like a monkey nut
      • having a single electron in a orbital is more stable than having to so they drop in the graph when their are two filed up in an P orbital
    • electron structure + ionic bonding
      • non metals
        • gain -ive electrons to fill the outer quantum shell
        • group 8 - group no gives charge
      • metals
        • +ive ions lose electrons to become positive
        • group no tells you how many electrons it loses
      • when empty the 4S orbit is at a lower energy level than the 3D so it is filled up first as well as lose electrons first when ions form
      • diatomic molecules
        • At2
        • H2
      • other molecules
        • P4
          • S8
            • O3
      • compounds
        • H2O
        • CO2
        • NaCl
        • NaOH
        • H2SO4
        • HCL
      • covalent molecules
        • H2O
        • CO2
        • HCL
      • ionic metals
        • NaCl
        • NaOH
        • make up 1% of the air
        • in the air argon is the most abundant
        • 30x more oxygen than carbon in the air
        • all Nobel gases bar radon can be distilled from liquid air


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