atoms, ions and isotopes

  • Created by: tia5sos
  • Created on: 26-11-20 16:52
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  • atoms, ions and isotopes
    • atomic number and mass number describe an atom
      • these 2 numbers tell you how many of each kind of particle an atom has
      • the atomic (proton) number tells you how many protons there are
      • atoms of the same element all have the same number of protons - so atoms of different elements will have different numbers of protons
      • to get the number of neutrons, just subtract the atomic number from the mass number
      • the mass (nucleon) number is always the biggest number. On periodic table the mass number is actually the relative atomic mass
      • neutral atoms have no charge overall (unlike ions). This is because they have the same number of protons as electrons
        • the charge on the electrons is the same size as the charge on the protons, but opposite - so the charges cancel out. so, the number of electrons in a neutral atom is also equal to the atomic number
    • ions have different numbers of protons and neutrons
      • ions form when atoms (or groups of atoms) gain or lose electrons
      • negative ions form when atoms gain electrons - they have more electrons than protons
      • positive ions form when atoms loose electrons - they have more protons than electrons
    • isotopes are the same as ions except for the number of neutrons
      • isotopes are different forms of the same element, which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
      • 1. isotopes have the same atomic number but different mass numbers
      • 2. if they had different atomic numbers, they'd be different elements all together
      • 3. a famous example is the two main iscotopes of carbon


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