Atomic Structure

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  • Created by: Abc312
  • Created on: 30-03-18 13:46
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  • Atomic Structure
    • Atoms
      • Have a nucleus
        • In the middle of the atom
        • Has Protons
          • Relative mass of 1
          • Positive charge
          • The amount of protons decide what that atom is
        • Has Neutrons
          • Relative mass of 1
          • No charge
        • 1/10000 of the radius of the atom
        • The mass is concentratedhere
      • Has electrons
        • Move around in shells
        • Virtually no mass
        • Negative charge
        • They cover a lot of space
          • The size of their orbits determines the size of the atom
      • Have no overall charge
        • Same number of protons and electrons
      • Nuclear Symbols tell you about the atom
        • The top number is the mass number
          • It tells you the total number of protons and neutrons
        • The bottom number is the Atomic (proton) number
          • This tells you the number of protons
      • Represented by a one or two letter symbol
      • Have a radius of about 0.1nm (1 x 10^-10 m)
    • Elements
      • Elements are a collection of atoms with the same atomic number
      • Isotopes are different forms of the same element
        • They have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
          • Same atomic number, different mass number
        • Elements exist as a number of different isotopes so relative atomic mass is used (Ar)
          • To find Ar add each isotope abundance times the mass number of that isotope
            • Then divide by the sum of all abundances of all the isotopes
    • Compounds
      • Atoms react with each other to make compounds
      • They are held together by chemical bonds
        • Can be hard to separate.
      • Represented by formulas
        • For example CO is carbon monoxide. It has one Carbon atom and one Oxygen atom
      • Formed from elements in chemical reactions
    • Mixtures
      • No chemical bonds between the different parts
      • Can be made from elements or compounds
      • Can be separated fairly easily
        • Usually with a physical method
          • Meaning a chemical reaction does not need to be used so nothing new is formed
      • The chemical properties of each substance in the mixtureremain unchanged,
    • ElectronicStructure
      • The electrons in an atom fill up the shells getting further away from the shell.
      • When full the first shell contains 2 electrons and further shells contain8 electrons.

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