Atomic structure + Bonding mind map

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  • Atomic structure and Bonding
    • All atoms are made up of 3 subatomic particles: Protons, Neutrons and Electrons.
      • Neutrons have no charge.
        • Neutrons and Protons make up the nucleus.
      • Protons are positively charged
        • Neutrons and Protons make up the nucleus.
        • The number of protons that an atom has determines what element  you have.
      • Electrons are negatively charged.
        • Electrons are found around the outside of the nucleus in energy levels or shells.
          • The energy level closest to the nucleus can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. All the others can hold a maximum of 8.
            • e.g Sodium would be arranged: 2,8,1 because Sodium has 11 electrons.
            • The number of shells tells you what period the element is in. The last shell tells you what group the element is in.
              • If an element has a full outer shell then it has a certain amount of stability. Elements with full outer shells do not react e.g. Group 8
        • Electon arrangement in atoms.
          • All atoms are neutral; the number of protons equals the number of electrons
    • Isotopes
      • "Isotopes are atoms of the same element therefore they have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons."
    • Bonding
      • Atoms can gain full outer shells by bonding with other atoms.
        • Ionic Bonding
        • Covalent Bonding


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