Atomic Structure

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  • Created by: R.Perkins
  • Created on: 04-03-14 11:07
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  • Atomic Structure
    • Protons
      • 1 m.u.
      • Postively charged
      • Found in the nucleus (slightly positively charged)
      • Atomic number - Number of protons in an atom of the element (Eg. Hydrogen = 1)
    • Neutrons
      • Boast a neutral charge
      • 1 m.u.
      • Found in the nucleus of an atom
      • Contribute to the mass number of element
    • Electrons
      • 1/2000 mu
      • Negatively charged
      • Found on the elctron shells
    • Isotopes
      • Contain a differing number of neutrons to the typical
        • Eg. Carbon 12, 13
      • The number of protons remain the same as the original
    • Rutherford and the 'Plum Pudding' Model
      • Plum Pudding
        • States that atoms are spheres of positive charge
          • Electrons could be stuck in them link 'plums in a pudding'.
        • Thomson discovered that electrons can be renoved from atoms
      • Scattering Experiment
        • Beam of alpha particles was aimed at thin gold foil.
        • Expectation - Alpha particles would pass through the material
        • Rays were repelled in different directions
          • Tiny concentration of positive charge within the atoms
        • Suggested that most of the mass in an atom was concentrated in the nucleus
    • Ionic and Covalent Compounds
      • Ionic - Electrons are transferred in order to create full outer shells
        • Eg. A Group 1 metal gives electrons to the halogens (group 7)
        • Results are ions. The atom that gave the electron(s) becomes a positively charged ion
      • Covalent - Electrons are shared between two atoms
        • These bonds are stronger


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