C4 - Atomic structure

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  • Created by: Naomi
  • Created on: 23-01-13 17:06
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  • Atomic structure
    • Atoms
      • The nucleus of an atom is made up of protons and neutrons surrounded by shells of electrons
        • A proton has a mass of 1 and a charge of +1
        • An electron has a mass of 0.0005 (zero) and a charge of -1
        • A neutron has a mass of 1 and a charge of 0
      • If a neutral atom has an atomic number of 11 and a mass number of 23 it will have:
        • 11 protons (because the atomic number is 11)
        • 12 neutons to make a mass of 23 (11+12)
        • 11 electrons (because the charge is neutral)
          • The positive and negative charges balance out
            • 11 protons (because the atomic number is 11)
    • Isotopes
      • Elements with the same atomic number but different mass numbers are called isotopes
        • It is always the number of neutrons that change otherwise it would become a different element
      • Carbon-12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons
      • Carbon-14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons
        • These are both isotopes of carbon
          • Carbon-12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons
    • Arrangement of electrons in atoms
      • Elements in the same group (with the same number of electrons in the outer shell) are arranged vertically
      • Elements in the same period (in order of how many shells the electrons occupy) are arranged horizontally

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