Atomic structure and the periodic table

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  • Atomic structure and the periodic table
    • Protons, neutrons, and electrons
      • Relative charges and masses
        • Proton: Charge: +1 Mass: 1 Location: nucleous
        • Neutron: Charge: 0 Mass: 1 Location: nucleous
        • Electron: Charge: -1 Mass: 0 Location: Electron shells
      • Proton number (atomic number): The number of protons and neutrons of an atom
      • Nucleous number (mass number): The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleous of an atom
    • The periodic table
      • Elements are arranged from left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number. Order generally coincides with increasing atomic mass. The rows are called periods.
    • Isotopes
      • Atoms of the same element which have the same proton number but a different nucleon number
      • Isotopes can be radioactive and non-radioactive
        • Radiactive uses
          • Medical radioactive use: To make medicine
          • Industrial radiactive use:  to manufacture plastic film
      • Isotopes still have the same properties as their element because they have the same number of electrons in their outer shell
    • Electron shells
      • Electrons build up in shells
        • The Noble gases (group 8/0) have a full outer electron shell. This makes them unreactive as they don't have to gain/lose electrons to have a full outer shell
    • The structure of matter
      • Element:  Elements are chemically the simplest substances and hence cannot be broken down using chemical reactions.
      • Mixture: A mixture contains two or more substances. that have not reacted chemically with each other
      • Compounds: A compound contains atoms of 2 or more elements chemically bonded together
      • Alloy: A mixture of a metal with other elements
    • Ionic bonds
      • Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons
        • Ionic compund lattice structure: A regular arrangement of alternating posotive and negative ions


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