Atomic Structure & the Periodic Table

  • Created by: Devika_C
  • Created on: 09-02-19 11:25
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  • Atomic Structure
    • atoms
      • smallest part of an element
      • protons = + neutrons = electrons = -
        • relative mass proton = 1 neutron = 1 electron = ~0
      • no overall electrical charge because
        • number of electrons = number of protons
      • atomic number = number of protons
        • mass number = protons + neutrons
      • all atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons
        • atoms of different elements have different number of protons
      • radius of an atom ~ 1x10-14m
        • radius of nucleus ~ 0.1nm (1x10-10m)
      • isotopes
        • atoms of the same same element with different numbers of neutrons
    • compounds
      • formed from elements by chemical reactions
      • 2 or more elements chemically bonded together
    • mixtures
      • 2 or more elements/ compounds not chemically bonded together
    • Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
      • Periodic Table
        • metals
          • react to form + ions
          • most elements are metals
          • found to the left and towards the bottom
        • non-metals
          • found towards the right and top
        • group 0
          • noble gases
            • don't easily form molecules
              • outer shell of electrons are full making them stable
                • unreactive
            • unreactive
            • boiling point
              • increase with increasing relative atomic mass
                • (going down the group)
          • full outer shell
        • group 7
          • halogens
            • 7 electrons in the outer shell
            • non-metals
            • consist of molecules made of pairs of atoms
            • the further down the group
              • higher the boiling and melting point
              • the reactivity decreases
            • a more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt
        • transition elements
          • ions with different charges
          • form colours compounds
          • useful as catalysts
    • plum pudding model
      • atom is a ball of positive charge with negative electrons embedded in it
    • alpha particle scattering experiment (nuclear model)
      • the mass of an atom was concentrated at the centre (nucleus)
        • nucleus was charged

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