Atomic Structure

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  • Atoms - Lesson 5 - Structure of the Atom
    • Atoms contain PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
      • Atoms radius = about 0.1 NANOMETERS
      • The NUCLEUS
        • In the MIDDLE of the atom
        • Contains PROTONS and NEUTRONS
        • RADIUS = 1 X 10 to the power of -14.
        • POSITIVE CHARGE because of the protons
        • Almost WHOLE mass is CONCENTRATED in the nucleus
        • The ELECTRONS
          • Move AROUND it in electron SHELLS
          • NEGATIVELY CHARGED and TINY, cover A LOT OF SPACE
          • VOLUME of their orbits determines the size of the atom.
          • Virtually NO mass
    • Number of protons EQUALS number of electrons
      • Atoms are NEUTRAL - NO CHARGE overall
      • Because they have the SAME NUMBER of PROTONS as ELECTRONS
        • CHARGE of electrons is SAME size on the PROTONS but OPPOSITE - so the charges CANCEL OUT
    • ATOMIC NUMBER and MASS NUMBER describe an atom
      • The NUCLEAR SYMBOL of an atom tells you its ATOMIC(PROTON)NUMBER and MASS NUMBER
      • The ATOMIC NUMBER tells you how many PROTONS there are (bottom number)
      • MASS NUMBER tells you the TOTAL NUMBER of PROTONS AND NEUTRONS in the atom.
        • NEUTRONS = ATOMIC NUMBER - MASS NUMBER

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