Atomic Models

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  • Atomic Models
    • Dalton
      • Solid spheres
      • Different spheres = different elements
    • Thomson
      • Atom must contain even smaller, negatively charged particles
      • Plum pudding model
    • Rutherford's Model
      • Gold Foil Experiment
      • Fired alpha particles at v thin sheet of gold
      • Expected most to be deflected slightly
      • Most passed through gold atoms and very small number deflected backwards
      • Came up with nuclear model
        • tiny positively charged nucleus surrounded by cloud of negative e-
      • Most of atom = empty
    • Bohr's Model
      • Realised e- in cloud would spiral down into nucleus
      • Proposed new model
        • electrons only exist in fixed orbits and nowhere in between
        • each shell has fixed energy
        • when electron moves between shells electromagnetic radiation is emitted or absorbed
          • as energy of shells is fixed, radiation will have fixed frequency
    • Other Atomic Models
      • Refined to include sub-shells
      • Not perfect but widely used as its simple and explains many observations
      • Most accurate is based on quantum mechanics
        • explains some observations that can't be accounted for by refined model but lot harder to get head round and visualise

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