Atkinson and Shiffrin's MSM

  • Created by: niamhkm08
  • Created on: 08-01-21 12:41
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    • There are 3 stages of remembering information.
      • This process was developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin and is known as the MSM.
    • The stages of memory:
      • ENCODING
        • This involves the conversion of info into codes called visual, auditory, and semantic codes, so it can be stored in your memory
        • Semantic coding is the conversion of info according to meaning
        • E.g. if we hear a coach tell us what to do, we may not remember it word for word, but we'll remember the essential meaning.
      • STORAGE
        • This is the retention of info over a period of time.
        • This involves recovering the new info that's been stored. The success of this retrieval depends on how well known the info is and how much there is of it.
        • The memory is very important in processing info. Our previous experiences affect how we judge and interpret info and the actions we take.
    • The three-stage process of memory:
      • Short-term sensory store
        • Info in the form of stimuli enters the brain from the environment.
        • Each store has a large capacity but info is stored for only a very short time (0.25-1 sec).
        • This filtering takes place in the STIMULUS IDENTIFICATION STAGE.
        • Selective attention occurs here. SELECTIVE ATTENTION - relevant info is filtered through into the STM and irrelevant info is lost or forgotten.
      • Short-term memory
        • Named the 'workplace' because its where the info is used to decide what needs to be done.
        • Only limited amount of info can be stored (about 7 pieces of info) and is held for a brief time (about 30 secs).
        • To extend the time, the performer needs to rehearse the info through imagery or sub-verbal repetition (talking to yourself).
        • Info can also be held in the STM through a process called 'chunking'.
          • CHUNKING: different pieces of info can be grouped together and then remembered as one piece of info.
            • For example, instead of trying to remember each separate move made by each player in a penalty corner in hockey, a player might remember the whole drill as a single number e.g. 'run 1' in hockey.
      • Long-term memory
        • Has almost limitless capacity and holds info for a longer period of time.
        • The stored info has been encoded. Info is stored in the LTM possibly by associating  it with other info or meaning.
        • Meaningless items are usually not stored for long periods of time - e.g. in swimming you may be aware of the depth notices on the side of the pool, but these are meaningless to your performance in a swimming race.
        • In order for info to stay in the LTM, it has to be rehearsed.
        • Motor programmes are stored in the LTM because they have been rehearsed many times.


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