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  • Assessment
    • poor mental health and wellbeing
      • Anxious about academic failure
      • Foucault's theory - power
        • Distinguishes between a good student and a bad onel.
      • Bernstein's theory - language
        • Restricted code - used  by working class pupils.
          • Can lead to underachievement - uses limited vocabulary and simple sentences.
            • This makes working class pupils at a further disadvantage.
              • Elaborated code - teachers, resources, exams use. Therefore, middle class pupils have higher chance of better achievement.
      • Analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study in 2012 found children in the lowest income quintile to be 4.5 times more likely to experience severe mental health problems than those in the highest.
        • This suggests that the income gradient in young people’s mental health has worsened considerably over the past decade.
    • middle class students get private tuition
      • Bourdieu's theory of social capita - supports this -the concept of social class and economic capital.
    • pressure on students from parents and teachers
      • Neoliberalism - the idea of financial gain being the pressure on students
      • Negative teacher attitudes promotes 'can't do' attitude in students
        • Student performances are consistently COMPARED!
      • Support from a younger age would enable the child to be better off now.
      • Class rivalries - competition between schools is the main instigator for putting pressure on students.
    • excess stress levels and lack of motivation
      • Attempts to motivate through fear or shame.
      • Changing dynamics during exam season will enable stress relief.
    • lack of revision
      • Promotes feelings of anxiety during exams
      • Could possibly be due to other undiscovered underlying problems like special educational needs.
        • Lack of testing for SEN.
        • Or possible psychological long term effects could be the distraction.
        • For instance, autistic children adhere to a 'routine'.
          • Links back with the idea of Space and Place.
          • A child will like a specific seating plan, specific lesson routine.
    • no/lack of engagement in lessons
      • Space and place - the idea of where a child is 'placed' in the classroom.
        • Seating plans are a good form of discipline - Space and Place theory.
          • Students are deprived from their choice of 'place' to maintain engagement and stimulation.
    • little appraisal for hard work
      • Skinner's theory - operant conditioning
        • Operant conditioning - positive reinforcement encourages the reproduction of positive behaviour.
      • This holds great value for those students whom have never felt affection or love before - i.e children from difficult backgrounds.
    • hunger during exams
    • poor relationship with parents/carers
      • "A 2015 survey of children attending CAMHS found that family relationship problems were the single biggest presenting problem. Similarly, ‘family relationships’ were the leading reason why children contacted Childline in 2015."
        • This can be supported with Chomsky's theory of Genie - the issue of neglect and lack of affection.
    • lack of academic support
      • Bruner's theory - scaffolding
        • Scaffolding - Children start to learn new concepts,  need help from teachers and other adults in the form of active support.
          • Dependent on their adult support, but as they become more independent in their thinking and acquire new skills and knowledge, the support can be gradually faded.
      • Not enough teaching assistants in schools. (USE STATISTICS)
    • working class children are less likely to achieve academic status


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