G4 question- assess challenges faced by attempts to meet demand for water

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  • Assess challenges faced by attempts to meet demand for water
    • California- challenges? special mismatch, where there is demand for water, there isn't any supply.
      • To try and solve the demand for water, they have introduced water recycling. The recycled water is directly used in factories for cooling, in agriculture for irrigation and some of the water is pumped back into the city for uses such as washing machines, toilets, showers.
        • Advantages-  .
          • 1)-conservation= because recycled water is put directly back into use, the process saves water that might other wise be lost through runoff
          • 2)irrigation=recycled water has additional benefits for the agricultural industry. Because it has been through a less thorough treatment process, it contains higher amounts of certain chemicals which help to fertilize the plants.
          • 3)it is low cost when compared to treating, processing and consuming 'new' water.
        • Disadvantages-
          • 1) Health risks- potential health risks is posed by the bacteria it may contain. Recycled water may contain E.coli or other harmful bacteria, which are transported to where ever the water is being used. when irrigating fields, this could lead to problems such as outbreaks of food borne illness.
          • 2)Public perception- there is a generally negative public perception that  surrounds the use of recycled water. Despite the fact that this water is treated, its status as non-potable can create the incorrect perception that it is dangerous and contaminated.
        • You've got the persuade people to want to use it.
    • India- challenge of soil erosion. When the rainfall does happen, it floods the crops which means food production decrease.
      • Every year India loses 6.6 billion tonnes of top soil due to heavy rainfall.  To try and solve this, they have started to build Earthen buns in order to protect the land from flooding. It is a simple low cost intervention that levels out the soil to collect the water and manure.


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