Networks

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  • Networks
    • LANs + WANs
      • LANs
        • Small geographical area
        • Hardware owned by using organisation
        • Wired or wireless
      • WANs
        • Connects LANs that are in different geographical locations
        • Infrastructure hired
        • Connected using telephone lines, satellite links, radio links
      • Performance
        • Bandwidth, amount of data transferred
        • Wired connections faster, more reliable
        • Choice of hardware and topology
    • Hardware
      • NIC, Switches, Routers
        • NICs allow devices to connect to a network
        • Switches connect devices on a LAN
        • Routers transmit data between networks
      • Cables
        • CAT 5e/6, four pairs of twisted copper wires
        • Coaxial, single copper wire, plastic layer + metallic mesh
        • Fibre optic, transmit data as light, no interference
      • Wi-Fi
        • 2 radio frequency bands, 2.4GHz and 5GHz
        • Split into numbered channels, each have small frequency range
        • Performance affected by interference between networks
    • Topologies
      • Star
        • All devices connected to a central switch or server
        • If a device fails, the rest of the network is unaffected
        • If the switch/server fails, the whole network's affected
      • Mesh
        • All devices directly or indirectly connected to each other
        • There's no single point the network can fail
        • Expensive as lots of wires needed
      • Bus + Ring
        • Traditional network setups
        • Ring - Data moves in one direction, no collisions
        • Bus - Arranged in a line, data both ways, collisions
    • Protocols
      • TCP
        • Transmission Control Protocol
          • Splits data into packets, sets rules for how devices connect on a network
      • IP
        • Internet Protocol
          • Packet switching
      • HTTP
        • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
          • Used by web browsers to communicatewith webservers
      • HTTPS
        • HTTP Secure
          • Encrypts all data sent + received
      • FTP
        • File Transfer Protocol
          • Used to access/edit files between devices on a network
      • POP3
        • Post Office Protocol 3
          • Retrieve emails from a server. Holds it until it's downloaded
      • IMAP
        • Internet Message Access Protocol
          • Retrieve emails from a server. Holds until it's deleted
      • SMTP
        • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
          • Used to send emails, transfers emails between servers
    • Layers
      • 1. Data Link Layer
      • 2. Network Layer
      • 3. Transport Layer
      • 4. Application Layer

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