AS LEVEL- Biology- Basic components of living systems (Organelles)

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  • Basic components of living systems (Organelles)
    • Cilia
      • Structure- *'Hair-like' extension *Shoter than flagella
        • Function- *Detect changes in the environment *Beats in a rhythmic manner *Causes fluids to move along the surface of a cell
    • Nucleus
      • Structure- *Surrounded by a nuclear envelope *Contains chromatin
        • Function- Controls cells activities by controlling the transcription of DNA
    • Nucleolus
      • Structure- Made out of proteins and RNA
        • Function- Makes ribosomes
    • Nuclear envelope
      • Structure- *Double membrane *Contains pores
        • Function-Nuclear pores allows substances to move between the nucleus + the cytoplasm
    • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
      • Structure- *Network of membranes *Arranged into flattened sacs = cisternea
        • Function- *Responsible for synthesising and storing lipids + carbs
    • Chloroplasts
      • Structure- *Surrounded by an envelope *Double membrane *Lots of sacs to increase SA *Inside are thylakoid membranes
        • Function- Where photosynthesis occurs
    • Centrioles
      • Structure- Small hollow cylinders made out of microtubules
        • Function- Involved in the separation of chromosomes during cell division
    • Flagella
      • Structure-  *'Whip-like' extension *Longer than cilia
        • Function- *Allows the cell to move *Acts as a sensory organelle
    • Lysosomes
      • Structure- Sacs surrounded by single membrane
        • Function- *Contains hydrolytic enzymes which degrades waste materials eg. pathogens *Responsible for the destruction of damaged organelles
    • Golgi apparatus
      • Structure- *Flattened sac of membrane = cisternae *Curved *Has vesicles on the edge of sacs
        • Function- *Modifies proteins by adding carbs *Packages proteins into secretory vesicles to be released by the cell
    • Cell wall
      • Structure- *Permeable *Plank = cellulose *Fungi = chitin *Bacteria = Peptidoglycan
        • Function- *Provides structure + support to cell *Protects plant wall from harm
    • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
      • Structure- *Flattened membrane sacs *Suface covered in ribosomes
        • Function- Responsible for the synthesis, folding + transport of proteins
    • Mitochondria
      • Structure- *Double membrane *Highly folded into cristae *Has a matrix inside *Has an envelope *Always contains DNA
        • Function- *Where aerobic respiration occurs  *Produces ATP which provides cell with energy
    • Plasma membrane
      • Structure- Phospholipid bilayer (made out of lipids and proteins)
        • Function- *Controls what goes in + out *Partially + selectively permeable *Barrier
    • Ribosomes
      • Structure- *Not membrane bound *Made of proteins and RNA
        • Function- Where protein synthesis occurs

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