AS Business studies

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  • AS Business Studies
    • What is a business?
      • Missions (mission statement) - aims (corporate aims) - objectives (functional, corporate)
      • Objectives - profit - growth - survival - cash flow - ethical or social
        • Can be short or long-term
      • Forms of a business - Sole trader - PLC and LTD - not-for-profit -
        • limited and unlimited liability
      • Shareholders - shares and share prices - dividends
      • External environment
        • Market conditions - interest rates - competition - environmental - demographic- ethical - technological
    • Management and decision making
      • Tannenbaum Schmidt Continuum
      • Blake mouton grid
      • Leadership styles - autocratic,paternalistic democratic and laissez-faire
        • internal vs external influences
      • decision making - scientific - intuitive - opportunity cost - risk, reward and uncertainty
        • Decision Trees - expected value - associated costs - net gain
      • Stakeholders
        • External vs Internal stakeholders
          • Different stakeholders have different objectives
        • Stakeholder mapping
    • Marketing decisions
      • Objectives
        • Sales volume and sales value
          • Sales growth
            • Market share
            • Brand loyalty
            • Market size and market growth
        • Internal vs External
          • The law directly influences marketing objectives
      • Market analysis
        • Market mapping
        • Market research - primary or secondary - quantitative or qualitative
        • Marketing data
          • Extrapolation - correlation - sales forecasts - confidence levels and intervals
          • PED and YED
      • Segmentation - Targeting - Positioning
      • The marketing mix - price, product, place, promotion, people, physical environment and process
    • Operational decisions
      • Objectives - Cost, quality, flexibility, efficiency, innovation, environment, dependability and speed of response
        • External vs internal
        • Added value = Sales revenue - cost of bought-in goods and services
        • Methods of production
          • Job - cell - flow - batch - lean
      • capacity utilisation
      • Efficiency and Labour productivity
      • Quality
      • Supply chains
    • Financial decisions
      • Objectives - cash flow - profit - funding
        • External vs Internal
      • Increasing profit
        • Percentage change in profit
        • Profit margins
        • Operating - gross - PFTY
      • Cash flow forecasting
      • Budgets
        • Adverse vs favourable
          • external vs internal causes
        • Historical budgets - zero-based budgets
      • Break-even analysis
        • Contribution - Break-even - Margin of safety
      • Sources of finance
        • External
          • Internal
            • Retained profit - rationalisation
          • Bank loan - overdraft - debt factoring - share capital - venture capital
    • Human Resources
      • Objectives
        • Internal vs external
      • Hard of Soft HRM
      • HR data
        • Labour productivity
        • Labour costs
        • Labour turnover
        • Labour retention
      • Organisational design
        • Tall or flat - wide or narrow spans of control
        • Hierarchy
        • Delegation
        • Centralised - decentralised
      • HR flow
        • Recruitment - external vs internal
        • Training and development
        • HR planning
      • Motivation and job design
        • Models
          • Maslow
          • Taylor
          • Herzberg
        • Hackman and Oldham
      • Motivation
        • Financial vs non financial methods
        • Organisational and job design
      • Employer-employee relations
        • Cooperation - communication - barriers to communication
        • benefits both parties
      • employee representation
        • Work councils and trade unions

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