Aquinas - Design Argument

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  • Aquinas' Design Argument
    • Context
      • Aquinas states that  natural objects or processes have an end product or final cause, which they always achieve.  For example: A volcano will erupt due to the final cause of the building up of pressure below the Earth's surface.
        • These processes cannot be achieved on their own and it cannot be down to luck or chance, so they must be directed by a intelligent being.
          • An example used is that of a bow and arrow.  The arrow and bow cannot operate on their own, they cannot reach their end product without being directed by a intelligent human being.
            • Design Qua Regularity
              • Regularity is the repetition of events happening in the world. When X happens Y seems to also happen as well. For example: When I drop a pen, it will fall to the floor.
                • Aquinas states that it is regularity in natural events  and processes that indicates some kind of design in the world and universe.
                  • If some events always has a certain effect/result then it is too unlikely to be a product of chance.
                    • Design Qua Regularity
                      • Regularity is the repetition of events happening in the world. When X happens Y seems to also happen as well. For example: When I drop a pen, it will fall to the floor.
                        • Aquinas states that it is regularity in natural events  and processes that indicates some kind of design in the world and universe.
                          • If some events always has a certain effect/result then it is too unlikely to be a product of chance.
      • Criticisms
        • Hume
          • The idea that you can prove the existence of God would go against his attribute of  being transcendent from the world.
        • Kant
          • Our mind naturally organises the world through our conceptual schemes. This allows us to make sense of the world. So just because we see the world as an organised object, doesn't necessarily mean it is organised, it is just how we have perceived it.
        • Evolution
          • Darwin's theory of Natural Selection shows that we evolve from selecting the fittest of our species that survive to continue the species to exist and not become extinct  Therefore, it would go against Aquinas's design argument because it shows that we evolve purely by chance, there is no regularity in survival of the fittest , since every generation adds something new.
          • Counter to Evolution!
            • Following the Anthropic Principle it states that God must have started of the process  for evolution because for the conditions to exist for evolution to take place can't come around by chance.

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