Psychology - approaches

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  • Created by: jade
  • Created on: 19-03-15 19:48
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  • Approaches
    • Cognitive
      • thought, both conscious and unconscious can influence behaviour;
      • thought mediates between stimulus and response;
      • information processing approach;
        • Schemas
          • Mental processes used to guide behaviour
          • Make sense of the world
            • information processing approach;
              • Schemas
                • Mental processes used to guide behaviour
                • Make sense of the world
                  • Info stored in categories, concepts and schemas
                • Retrieve info from the appropriate schema to guide our response to an event (stimulus)
                  • E.g stranger stands on foot
                    • Majority of people would retrieve past info that this was an accident
                    • Certain people would think it was a deliberate provocative act
                      • Dodge's attribution bias
                        • CBT would help change these attributions
            • Info stored in categories, concepts and schemas
          • Retrieve info from the appropriate schema to guide our response to an event (stimulus)
            • E.g stranger stands on foot
              • Majority of people would retrieve past info that this was an accident
              • Certain people would think it was a deliberate provocative act
                • Dodge's attribution bias
                  • CBT would help change these attributions
      • mind works similarly to a computer;
        • E.g. Multi store model (Attkinson and Shiffrin)
        • Input, process, output
      • use of models;
      • mental processes can be scientifically studied;
      • the human mind actively processes information
      • Evaluation
        • Not possible to see cognitive processes st work making it subjective and unscientific, decreasing validity.
          • But they do use scientific method to infer
            • Such as memory, attention, problem solving and reasoning all use lab experiments
            • Replicable, controlled, objective
            • Don't always reflect the real world, often not real ife tasks, decisions etc.
        • Applications
          • Memory, sports psychology, cognitive treatments
          • Cognitive interview (Geiselman)
        • Mechanical, often more interested in mental processes than behaviour
          • Ignore human emotion, little more than machines (computer analogy)
        • Nomothetic to create laws but idiographic in case studies (KF and HM)
          • KF Case Study supports the Working Memory Model. suffered brain damage to STM
            • impairment was mainly for verbal info – memory for visual info was largely unaffected. Shows  separate STM components for visual (VVS) and verbal  (phonological loop).
    • Sociall learning theory
      • Learning in a social context
        • Can explain the learning of complex social behaviours
          • Evaluation
            • Takes into account the role of cognition in learning
            • use of experimental method and focus on humans
            • Applications
              • self-efficacy
                • extent of one's belief in one's own ability to complete tasks and reach goals
                • SLT = learn skills from observation, imitation and modelling of one another
                  • Self-efficacy reflects an individual’s understanding of what skills he/she can offer in a group setting
              • Sports psychology
                • Vicarious reinforcment watching experienced players be dedicated and do well because of this for example
            • Neglects the role of biology/ heredity/ maturation
            • Doesn't specify how observed behaviour is stored or reproduced
          • Does not explain the learning of abstract ideas (moral principles)
      • Observational learning
      • imitation
      • identification
      • role of models
        • characteristics of models
          • power
          • admired
          • warmth + friendliness
          • same gender
          • similarity
        • consequences of bheaviour of models
      • Vicarious reinforcement/punishment
      • Disticiton between learning and eprformance
      • Cognitive facotrs in learning (attention, retention)
        • Takes into account the role of cognition in learning
      • personal agency
      • self-efficacy
        • extent of one's belief in one's own ability to complete tasks and reach goals
        • SLT = learn skills from observation, imitation and modelling of one another
          • Self-efficacy reflects an individual’s understanding of what skills he/she can offer in a group setting
      • reciprocal determinism
        • less deterministic and reductionist than behaviourist
        • interaction between behaviour and environement
      • Bobo Doll
        • imitation of agression
        • Agressive conditions resulted in more agressive behaviour than control
          • Significantly higher agression for imitation of the male model for both sexes
        • Demand characteristics
        • novelty/pleasant to hit
    • Behaviourist
      • Learned from experience/ blank  slate
      • Classical and/or operant conditioning
        • Classical
          • Association of two stimuli
          • Skinner and Pavlov
          • Little Albert
          • Extinction
            • If UCS does not appear after CS then CR will cease
          • Discrimination
            • CR only elicited by original CS
          • Generalisation
            • Other similar stimuli to the CS produce a CR
        • Operant
          • past reinforcements and punishments
          • Different schedules of reinforcement
            • Continuous - every correct response
            • or partial reinforcement - fixed ratio (FR3 = 1 reinforcer after every 3 correct responses
      • Evaluation
        • Sucess of behaviour therapy (aversion therapy, systematic desensitization) and can be applied to token economy
          • Highly applicable
          • Sytematic desnsitization conditions positive associations with feared objects in phobias
          • Aversion therapy conditions negative associations with addictions.
        • Scientific approach, experimental mothod allowed for development as a science with objective, varifiable facts
        • Nomothetic (laws and labs but ignores subjective person)
        • Ignores mediational processes
        • Ignores biological factors
        • Too deterministic (environmental)(no free-will)
        • Therapies focus on the now and deal with the problem.
          • Whereas therapies such as psychoanalysis would concentrate on the past
          • Some can be unpleasant (flooding) and they do not always seek underlying reason
        • Reductionist
        • There is contradictory evidence to the pricnciples of conditioning
          • E.g the concept of learned helplessness
            • Seligman's dogs (mild electric shocks conditioned them to jump back and forth. But they soon lay down and accepted punishment
      • use of animals
        • Human behaviour is more complex than animal behaviour
          • Evaluation
            • Sucess of behaviour therapy (aversion therapy, systematic desensitization) and can be applied to token economy
              • Highly applicable
              • Sytematic desnsitization conditions positive associations with feared objects in phobias
              • Aversion therapy conditions negative associations with addictions.
            • Scientific approach, experimental mothod allowed for development as a science with objective, varifiable facts
            • Nomothetic (laws and labs but ignores subjective person)
            • Ignores mediational processes
            • Ignores biological factors
            • Too deterministic (environmental)(no free-will)
            • Therapies focus on the now and deal with the problem.
              • Whereas therapies such as psychoanalysis would concentrate on the past
              • Some can be unpleasant (flooding) and they do not always seek underlying reason
            • Reductionist
            • There is contradictory evidence to the pricnciples of conditioning
              • E.g the concept of learned helplessness
                • Seligman's dogs (mild electric shocks conditioned them to jump back and forth. But they soon lay down and accepted punishment
          • Conciousness, reflective thought/ emotions
          • animals can be studied in detail in a way that humans could not
      • Observable behaviour
      • Radical beahviourism (Skinner)
        • entirely determined by past experiences and conditioning
      • Neo-behaviourism
        • inclusion of SLT
    • Biological
      • All behaviour has a biological basis
      • The causal level of analysis
        • The phyislogical processes underlying behaviour
          • nervous system
            • central - brain and spinal cord
            • Peripheral - ANS
              • Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, temerature, flight or fight
      • The functional level of analysis
        • Genetic basis - originating form Darwin's work
          • NaTURAL SELECTION
      • Genes

Comments

10ASmith

Would have been great if finished

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